Previous studies have demonstrated that serum vitamins are associated with serum uric acid (SUA) level. However, no study has comprehensively investigated whether various serum vitamins are associated with SUA level in a general population. Thus, a cross-sectional study was designed to explore the associations between SUA level and serum vitamins. The data of this study for SUA levels were collected from participants aged ≥18 y. Serum vitamin and other baseline information, including age and body mass index, was determined. Moreover, associations between SUA level and serum vitamins were explored using analysis of covariance. Higher levels of SUA were significantly associated with a higher level of serum vitamins A, B9 and B5 (p<0.05). Higher level of SUA were associated with a lower level of serum vitamins C, and D2 (p<0.05). No significant associations were found between vitamins C, and D2 and SUA levels after adjustment. Study results suggested that serum vitamins A, B9 and B5 were positively associated, whereas serum vitamins C, and D2 were inversely associated with SUA levels.
Few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation and T2DM in type 2 diabetic animal models. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between early 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and the incidence of T2DM and determine whether early 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation was associated with inflammation in KK-Ay mice. The KK-Ay mice were divided into 4 vitamin D treatment groups, the low-dose vitamin D supplementation group (VDS-L, 1.5 μg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3), moderate-dose vitamin D supplementation group (VDS-M, 3.0 μg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3), high-dose vitamin D supplementation group (VDS-H, 6.0 μg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3) and the model control group (MC). C57BL/6J mice were used as the controls. The treatment period lasted for 9 wk. During this treatment period, fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of the mice was measured on a weekly basis. The levels of lipid profile, insulin and inflammation biomarkers were determined after 9 wk of 1,25(OH)2D3 intragastric gavage. After 9 wk of 1,25(OH)2D3 intragastric gavage, FBG level was significantly decreased in the vitamin D treatment groups compared with the MC group. The number of T2DM incidence in the VDS-L group (n=7), VDS-M group (n=5) and VDS-H group (n=3) was lower than those in the MC group (n=10) on week 9. Moreover, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the vitamin D treatment groups were significantly suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D3 administration compared with the MC group. Early 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation could effectively lower the incidence of T2DM via ameliorating inflammation in KK-Ay mice.
The current main treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) is induction therapy by long-term administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), but various side effects have been reported. Therefore, a radical cure for UC is desired. A vitamin C (VC) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study investigated whether a VC solution enema shortens induction of remission in colitis model rats. Wistar rats (6 wk old/male) were allowed to freely ingest a 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) solution for 10 d and then switched to tap water for normal breeding for 10 d (UC group). At the time of switching to tap water, an enema was performed with a 5-ASA solution (40 mg/kg/d) or VC solution (460 mg/kg/d) for 10 d. The neutrophil number, COX-2, which is an index of inflammation, and type III collagen, which is an early healing marker, were significantly increased in the UC group. However, the VC group showed decreases compared with UC groups. Furthermore, compared with UC and 5-ASA groups, the VC group showed increased expression of type I collagen, which is expressed late in healing, and significant epithelial regeneration was observed in colon tissue. The VC solution enema shortened the induction of remission by directly suppressing inflammation of damaged large intestinal tissues and promoting mucosal healing.
Increasing adaptive thermogenesis through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising practical strategy for preventing obesity and related disorders. Ingestion of a single dose of 40 mg of an extract of Grains of Paradise (GP), a ginger family species, reportedly triggers BAT thermogenesis in individuals with high but not in those with low BAT activity. We hypothesized that prolonged treatment with GP might revive BAT in individuals who have lost active BAT. In the present study, we recruited 9 healthy young male volunteers with reduced BAT that was assessed by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) following 2-h cold exposure at 19ºC. The subjects ingested GP extract (40 mg/d) or placebo every day for 5 wk. Before and after the treatment with either GP or placebo, their body composition and BAT-dependent cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT)—a non-invasive index of BAT—were measured in a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design. Their whole-body resting energy expenditure at a thermoneutral condition remained unchanged following GP treatment. However, CIT after treatment was significantly higher in GP-treated individuals than in placebo-treated individuals. Body weight and fat-free mass did not change significantly following GP or placebo treatment. Notably, body fat percentage slightly but significantly decreased after GP treatment but not after placebo treatment. These results suggest that repeated ingestion of GP elevates adaptive thermogenesis through the re-activation of BAT, thereby reducing body fat in individuals with low BAT activity.
Japanese salt consumption is high, about 10 g salt/d. Low salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, saltiness is an important taste in daily meals, greatly influencing eating habits. When hospital admission is short-term, reducing salt supply may have an adverse effect on food intake. The aim of this study is to find the effect of sudden change in dietary salt content on energy intake in elderly Japanese inpatients. The study is an observational study of 83 patients and was conducted in a hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The research period was three weeks, and included 8 g salt/d meals for the 1st week, 7 g salt/d meals for the 2nd week, and 7 g salt/d meals with total 1 g/d salt packs that patients were allowed to use freely for the 3rd week. The energy supply satisfied the individuals’ energy requirements and was the same throughout the three weeks. Nutrition surveys and blood pressure measurements during the three weeks were conducted by dietitians and nurses, respectively. The results showed that energy intake of patients was reduced by about 90 kcal/d in the 2nd week compared with the 1st week and increased about 130 kcal/d in the 3rd week compared with the 2nd week. Blood pressure did not change during the research period. When high salt intake has become a habit, reducing salt supply suddenly in a short time period may lead to decreased energy intake in elderly inpatients but does not affect blood pressure.
To demonstrate that fortified crystal salt enriched with iron, iodine, vitamin B12, folic acid and zinc can combat multi-micronutrient deficiencies. A randomized controlled study was conducted in 6 villages in Tiruvallur district, in Tamilnadu, South India. All the women and children aged 5–17 y in households in the experimental villages (n=117) were provided the fortified salt for 8 mo. Similar demographic group in the control villages (n=95) used regular non-fortified salts for the same time period. Blood from study subjects were analysed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, AGP, CRP, and serum zinc, at the beginning and end of the study. Urine was analyzed for iodine at the same times. The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin (>1.05 g/dL), serum zinc (>12.23 μg/dL), ferritin (>6.97 μg/L) and body iron stores (>0.73 mg/kg body weight), compared to the control group. A significant decrease in the prevalence of anaemia from 67.5% to 29.1% and zinc deficiency from 32.7% to 12.4% was observed in the experimental group relative to control group, using Binary logistic regression. There was no change in urinary iodine in the experimental group while it decreased significantly in the control. The fortified crystal salt was effective in decreasing multi-micronutrient deficiencies.
The brain needs the appropriate capillary networks to maintain normal brain function. Since previous studies showed age-related decrease in the cortical capillaries, it is suggested that protection against capillary aging is critical for maintaining brain function. Epidemiological studies have indicated that brain functions were protected from age-related decline by the long-term consumption of matcha. However, whether matcha has protective effects on capillary aging has not been studied yet. In this study, we utilized Flt1-DsR mice that expressed a red fluorescent protein in vascular endothelial cells to visualize cortical capillaries clearly. We found that cortical capillary density decreased in aging Flt1-DsR mice. Our results of the aortic ring assay and tube formation assay revealed that matcha and its components vitamin K1 and lutein, which are abundant in matcha powder, enhanced the angiogenic potential. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of long-term ingestion of matcha on mouse cortical capillary aging by using imaging experiments. The capillary density of the Flt1-DsR mice, which were fed matcha-containing food, indicated the protective effects of matcha ingestion on capillary aging in a limited cortical layer. These results suggest that biological regulation of matcha and its components affect the angiogenic potential, which is related to the prevention of capillary aging.
HNF4α is a nuclear receptor whose ligands are fatty acids. HNF4α is a target molecule for drug discovery research and thus we tested its covalent binding ability to investigate the possible development of covalent modifiers of HNF4α. Oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (oxo-PUFAs) have moderate flexibility and possess a Michael acceptor that participates in conjugate addition reactions with nucleophilic amino acid residues. Thus, oxo-PUFAs were used as probes and their covalent binding abilities to HNF4α were verified. Several oxo-PUFAs, such as 4-oxoDHA, were shown to be covalent modifiers of HNF4α and therefore we concluded that HNF4α can form covalent bonds to ligands.
Estradiol (E2) modulates the central and peripheral thermoregulatory responses to cold. Menthol is an agonist of transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8), which is a peripheral cold receptor. E2 suppresses menthol-induced elevation of body temperature (Tb) in ovariectomized rats, but the mechanism is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of E2 on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a thermogenic gene, and TRPM8 mRNA levels in ovariectomized rats applied menthol. A silastic tube was implanted in ovariectomized rats with and without E2 underneath the dorsal skin (E2(+) and E2(−) groups), and data loggers for Tb measurement into peritoneal cavity. After application of 10% L-menthol or vehicle to the skin of the whole trunk of rats, Tb was measured for 2 h. The interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spinal ganglia of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar parts were obtained for RT-qPCR assay. In the menthol application, Tb in the E2(+) group was lower than that in the E2(−) group. The UCP1 mRNA in the BAT, TRPM8 mRNA in the BAT and spinal ganglia in all areas did not differ between the E2(+) and E2(−) groups. In conclusion, the UCP1 and TRPM8 expression in the brown fat did not affect the restriction of the menthol-induced hyperthermia by estradiol in ovariectomized rats.
Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, in addition to a poor diet loaded with simple carbohydrates and saturated fats. This was a trial with a randomized, analytical, longitudinal, and prospective quasi-experimental design, which was divided into 2 phases: the first with healthy subjects with an age range between 18 to 30 y and normal BMI (18.5–24.9). The second phase was subjected with familial hypercholesterolemia aged between 18 to 45 y and overweight (25–29.9). For those subjects who frequently consumed vegetable oil of both Vitis vinifera L., or Persea americana L. (10 mL), they presented a significant reduction in anthropometric measures and in biochemical variables such as capillary glucose and increased HDLc. The vegetable oils of Persea americana L., and Vitis vinifera L., can act as adjuvants for the treatment of noncommunicable diseases.
Intake of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from nutritionally controlled hospital diet was analyzed and compared with those estimated by calculation. Thirty meals provided at a hospital in Okinawa were sampled. GABA content per meal were measured by HPLC and calculated from GABA content data in foods as much as available. As a result, out of a total of 30 meals, only 49.3% of the weight of food that appeared in the meals could be calculated. The analyzed and calculated median daily GABA intake was 67.3 mg and 30.0 mg. Overall, the calculated values were lower than the analytical values, but there was a significant positive correlation (rs=0.618, p<0.001). The more complete the database on GABA content, the more accurate the GABA intake could be estimated by calculation.