Type 2 diabetic mellitus is manifested by metabolic impairments with high prevalence worldwide, of which periodontitis represents a typical oral complication (also called diabetic periodontitis). Oral epithelia bear the brunt of periodontal damage from microscopic intruders; thus the defense function of epithelial cells is of vital significance. We have previously proved that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) altered the expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in oral epithelial cells in vitro. Herein, we discovered that 25-OHD3 intraperitoneal injection attenuated periodontal inflammation by promoting cathelicidin production in gingival epithelia and reducing fasting glucose of diabetic mice. Dotblotting of serum showed cathelicidin secretion was consistent with 25-OHD3 treatment. Immunochemistry exhibited enhanced expression of cathelicidin and vitamin D receptors along with reduced expression of TLR4 in diabetic mice. Stereomicroscope showed less alveolar bone loss when injected with 25-OHD3.These results showed 25-OHD3 can promote cathelicidin and ameliorate the severity of diabetic periodontitis. Our study complemented the mechanism of cathelicidin and extended knowledge of 25-OHD3's role in diabetic periodontitis.
We aimed to examine the effects of variable timing of carbohydrate intake on postprandial glucose and insulin excursion in a diet with the same levels of energy and balance of three major nutrients. The study subjects included 8 healthy individuals, mean age 20.0±1.2 y (4 males and 4 females; mean age, 19.1±0.7 and 20.8±0.9 y, respectively), without a family history of diabetes. They consumed a test meal consisting of three separate plates of rice, vegetables, and meat after an overnight fast. The subjects consumed the three plates in different orders on three different days; the subsequent changes in glucose and insulin levels were measured over a 120-min period. The participants who consumed rice at the end showed a significantly lower increase in glucose and insulin levels after 30 min of consumption than that shown by participants who consumed rice first. The areas under the curves for both glucose and insulin responses over 120 min were the least when rice was consumed last, whereas they were the greatest when rice was consumed first. These findings suggested that consuming carbohydrates at the end of a meal is associated with lower postprandial excursions of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, consuming carbohydrates last following vegetables and meat protects against postprandial excursions of glucose and insulin levels.
Hepatic encephalopathy is a major complication in patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with poor prognosis. To evaluate the effectiveness of L-carnitine supplementation in patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in patients with OHE who were treated with intravenous branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), with or without intravenous L-carnitine. Twenty-six patients were treated with intravenous BCAA in addition to conventional agents such as lactulose and non-absorbable antibiotics (Group A), and 19 patients were treated with these agents plus intravenous L-carnitine (Group L). Changes in blood ammonia concentrations, hepatic coma grade and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were compared in the two groups. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was evaluated in the two groups and in patients who were and were not administered oral L-carnitine supplementation. At baseline, GCS scores were significantly lower and deterioration in liver function greater in Group L. After 3 d of intravenous L-carnitine, however, GCS showed a significantly greater improvement in Group L than in Group A. Blood ammonia levels improved stably over time in Group L. Overall survival and RFS were similar in Group L and Group A, but median RFS was significantly longer in patients who did than did not receive oral L-carnitine supplementation (735 versus 497 d, p=0.03). Although these findings are preliminary, L-carnitine supplementation may be a therapeutic option for patients with OHE and disturbed consciousness.
The effect of soy and casein peptide intake on the metabolism of amino acids and monoamine neurotransmitters in the serum and brain were examined in C57BL/6 mice. Acute oral administration of soy peptide (0.026 g/30 g body weight) caused a notable increase in tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, in the serum and cerebral cortex, whereas casein peptide administration at the same dose led to an increase in tyrosine in the serum, but not in the cerebral cortex. In addition to tyrosine, soy peptide administration also led to an effective augmentation of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), a principal metabolite of noradrenaline, and significant facilitation of noradrenergic turnover in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and hippocampus compared to the vehicle control. Casein peptide administration also led to an increase in MHPG only in the cerebral cortex, and caused facilitation of noradrenergic turnover in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. These in vivo observations suggest that both soy and casein peptide intake at this concentration can lead to an increased availability of tyrosine and stimulation of noradrenergic turnover in the brain.
Cognitive impairment is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Dietary factors have an important role in cognitive dysfunction. Soy has many benefits, and consumption of soy-based foods is general in East Asian countries. In this study, we want to investigate the association between cognitive function decline and soy-based food intake among the elderly in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). Subjects aged less than 65 y or with missing data were excluded. There was a total of 1,105 participants aged 65 and over who completed Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Eighty-five-point-six percent of participants consumed soy-based foods every day. After adjustment for potential variables, the logistic regression model showed significant associations for age, gender, education, soy-based foods intake and physical component summary (PCS). Age and female gender were both positively correlated with cognitive impairment (odds ratios: 1.1 and 4.43, respectively). Furthermore, there were negative correlations for education, soy-based foods intake and PCS (odds ratios: 0.25, 0.45 and 0.97, respectively). In this study, we found that soy-based foods were negatively associated with cognitive function decline among Taiwanese elderly. This result may be used as a reference for dietary advice for the elderly.
Acrylamide, classified as a probable carcinogen to humans, forms during high- temperature cooking. Dietary exposure among the Japanese is unknown. To evaluate the validity of estimated acrylamide intake using a dietary record (DR) and the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with the duplicate diet method (DM) in a Japanese population. Design: A validation study was performed with 14 participants (age, 32-50 y; 11 women) from 11 households. Food samples were simultaneously collected for the DM and DR on the same day over 2 consecutive days. The FFQ was administered after collecting samples for the DM and DR. For the DM, dietary acrylamide was calculated from chemical analyses of each food. For the DR and FFQ, acrylamide intake for each food was calculated using the database of acrylamide contents of foods. Correlation coefficients were calculated using the Spearman rank method. Average acrylamide intake values calculated using the DM, DR, and FFQ were 0.106, 0.233, and 0.128 μg/kg body weight/d, respectively; these values showed a marginally positive correlation between the DM and DR (r=0.52), but a low correlation between the DM and FFQ (r=−0.011). For the DR, non-alcoholic drinks had the highest contribution, followed by confectionery and vegetables. For the DM, the contribution of confectionery was the highest, followed by vegetables and non-alcoholic drinks. In conclusion, the validity of acrylamide intake estimation using the DR was reasonably high when compared to the analytical value of the simultaneous DM. However, further improvement is required for estimating acrylamide intake using the FFQ.
Marine carotenoids have been reported to prevent and alleviate lifestyle-related diseases including diabetes and obesity. We previously reported that siphonaxanthin, a green algal carotenoid, effectively suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and prevents lipid accumulation in mesenteric adipose tissue of KK-Ay mice. Thus, we expect that dietary siphonaxanthin-rich marine green algae may effectively prevent obesity. Here, we assessed the effect of dietary siphonaxanthin-rich green algae (Codium cylindricum) on the development of diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF; 7% fat, w/w), a high-fat diet (HF; 35% fat, w/w), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 1% or 5% green algal powder (1GA or 5GA) for 78 d. Our results showed that weights of body and perirenal white adipose tissue (WAT) in the 5GA group were significantly lower than that in the HF group. The mesenteric and total WAT, as well as plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations tended to be lower in both the 1GA and 5GA groups compared to the HF group. Dietary green algal powder reduced the expression of lipogenesis-related genes and enhanced the expression of energy expenditure-related genes in the mesenteric WAT. Siphonaxanthin accumulated in the mesenteric WAT may contribute to the prevention of adiposity in mesenteric WAT. Furthermore, the reduction in the weight of WAT was attributed to the inhibitory effect on fat absorption of dietary fiber contained in the green algae. Overall, these results indicated that siphonaxanthin-rich green algae may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity and regulation of lipid metabolism.
The effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on gut-barrier function are still controversial in human and animal studies. Diet conditions would be a major factor for the controversy in animal studies. We fed rats a semi-purified (SP) or a non-purified diet (NP) with or without FOS (60 g/kg diet) for 9 (experiment 1) or 10 d (experiment 2). We assessed microbial fermentation, gut permeability, and inflammatory responses in the cecum (experiment 1), and mucus layer in the cecum, intestinal transit time and microbiota composition (experiment 2). FOS supplementation induced a very acidic fermentation due to the accumulation of lactate and succinate in SP, while short-chain fatty acids were major products in NP. Gut permeability estimated by urinary chromium-EDTA excretion, bacterial translocation into mesenteric lymph nodes, myeloperoxidase activity, and expressions of the inflammatory cytokine genes in the cecal mucosa were greater in SP+FOS than in SP, but these alterations were not observed between NP and NP+FOS (experiment 1). FOS supplementation destroyed the mucus layer on the epithelial surface in SP, but not in NP. Intestinal transit time was 3-fold longer in SP+FOS than in SP, but this was not the case between NP and NP+FOS. Lower species richness of cecal microbiota was manifest solely in SP+FOS (experiment 2). These factors suggest that impact of FOS on gut permeability and inflammatory responses in the cecal mucosa quite differs between SP and NP. Increased gut permeability in SP+FOS could be evoked by the disruption of the mucus layer due to stasis of the very acidic luminal contents.
Dietary habits and lifestyles are considered to affect the frequency of epigastric symptoms. In our previous study, we found that three amino acids in Japanese broth promoted gastric emptying. We hypothesized that a higher consumption of miso soup which was mainly composed of Japanese broth and miso paste would be associated with a lower frequency of epigastric symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between frequency of miso soup intake and reflux or dyspepsia symptoms in a general Japanese population. Sixteen items of dietary habits were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire, and epigastric symptoms were evaluated using the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG). We fitted generalized linear models to analyze the association between miso soup intake and FSSG, reflux, or dyspepsia scores adjusted by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), another 15 dietary habits, smoking, drinking alcohol, and unfavorable dietary behaviors. A total of 9,364 subjects were included in the analysis. Trend analysis revealed that higher frequency of miso soup intake was associated with lower FSSG scores (p<0.001). In a generalized linear model, daily intake of miso soup was associated with lower FSSG, reflux, and dyspepsia scores independent of age, sex, BMI, other 15 dietary habits, smoking, drinking alcohol, and unfavorable dietary behaviors (estimate=−0.46, −0.22, and −0.27, respectively; 95% CI=−0.83, −0.12; −0.38, −0.07; and −0.47, and −0.08, respectively). Dairy intake of miso soup was associated with lower epigastric symptoms.
Beta-carotene has been suggested to be a factor for improving the immune system, which implies that it might decrease the risk of infections. We therefore analyzed whether beta-carotene supplementation influenced pneumonia risk in 14,564 Finnish male smokers of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study. There were 231 pneumonia cases in the beta-carotene group and 217 cases in the placebo group. Thus, beta-carotene had no effect on the average incidence of pneumonia, RR=1.07 (95% CI: 0.89-1.29). However, cigarette smoking exposure significantly modified the effect. Beta-carotene increased pneumonia risk by RR=4.0 (95% CI: 1.63-10) among 990 participants who started to smoke at the age of ≥21 y and smoked ≥21 cigarettes per day at the study baseline. However, beta-carotene had no influence on pneumonia risk for the remaining participants. We also analyzed the effect of beta-carotene on participants who quit smoking during the ATBC Study. Among 4,290 participants who quit smoking, the 58 pneumonia cases were evenly distributed between the beta-carotene and placebo groups with RR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.55-1.55). Accordingly, no evidence was found that beta-carotene decreased pneumonia risk; instead, it significantly increased the incidence of pneumonia in a subgroup that covered 7% of the study population.
The regional standard for tempeh established by the Codex Alimentarius defines the use of Rhizopus oligosporus, R. oryzae, and/or R. stolonifer as soybean tempeh starters. However, comparative studies on the functions of tempeh prepared with these Rhizopus species are scarce. In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary tempeh prepared with these three Rhizopus species using rats fed with a high-fat diet. Compared to the control diet, consumption of tempeh prepared with R. stolonifer significantly suppressed serum levels of aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, and ammonium (indices of liver function). However, less or no suppression was observed with tempeh prepared with R. oligosporus or R. oryzae. Serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and glucose were unaffected. Liver levels of free cholesterol, a parameter relating to liver injury, were significantly decreased by the three types of the tempeh examined; however, there was no difference in the free cholesterol levels among the tempeh groups. We conclude that the ingestion of tempeh prepared with R. stolonifer might have beneficial effects pertaining to the liver function in rats fed with high-fat diets.