Previous studies have shown that α-tocopherol intake lowers phylloquinone (PK) concentration in some extrahepatic tissues in rats. The study’s aim was to clarify the effect of α-tocopherol intake on vitamin K concentration in bone, as well as the physiological action of vitamin K. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Over a 3-mo period, the K-free group was fed a vitamin K-free diet with 50 mg RRR-α-tocopherol/kg, the E-free group was fed a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg without vitamin E, the control group was fed a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg with 50 mg RRR-α-tocopherol/kg, and the E-excess group was fed a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg with 500 mg RRR-α-tocopherol/kg. PK concentration in the liver was higher in E-excess rats than in E-free rats, was lower in the tibias of control rats than in those of E-free rats, and was lower in E-excess rats than in control rats. Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) concentration in the liver was higher in E-excess rats than in E-free and control rats. However, MK-4 concentrations in the tibias of E-free, control, and E-excess rats were almost the same. Blood coagulation activity was lower in K-free rats than in the other rats but was not affected by the level of α-tocopherol intake. Additionally, dietary intake of PK and α-tocopherol did not affect uncarboxylated-osteocalcin concentration in the serum, femur density, or expression of the genes related to bone resorption and formation in the femur. These results suggest that α-tocopherol intake decreases PK concentration in bone but does not affect bone metabolism in rats.
Nutritional complications frequently occur among patients undergoing rehabilitation, and the importance of nutrition in these patients has been emphasized. However, there is not enough evidence available on rehabilitation nutrition. The Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database was set up to reflect the real-world clinical practice of rehabilitation nutrition. This paper describes the construction and quality evaluation of the registry database. We constructed a large-scale database that can be used for the clinical research of nutrition for rehabilitation. To verify the data, a simple comparison of the numbers of cases, data loss, data duplication, data type errors, out of range values, and input errors in the option columns was performed. From March 2016 to June 2017, 797 cases were registered in the rehabilitation database from 18 facilities. The variable entry error frequency ranges from 0% to 0.4% and the frequency of a main item missing from 0.4% to 10.9%. Energy intake on hospitalization was missing in 10.9% of cases, and Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form and Food Intake LEVEL Scale on hospitalization was missing in 9.7% of cases. Stroke accounted for 45.7% of the diseases registered, pneumonia for 36.5%, and proximal femoral fracture for 17.8%. Through the use of this database, research on rehabilitation nutrition can be conducted, and there is a possibility that useful results for future clinical practice may be obtained. Verification of the secondary use of the database is becoming the basis for evidence-based nutritional rehabilitation.
Blackcurrants are berries that contain high levels of anthocyanins, particularly delphinidin 3-rutinoside (D3R). Several studies have reported that the consumption of blackcurrant extract (BCE) lowers blood glucose levels and ameliorates glucose tolerance, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are considered one of the most significant molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we showed that dietary BCE significantly reduced blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic mice (KK-Ay). The basal GLP-1 concentration in plasma was significantly increased in the BCE group accompanied by upregulation of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), the enzyme that processes intestinal proglucagon. Moreover, the level of phospho-AMPKα protein in skeletal muscle was significantly increased in the BCE group, and this was increase accompanied by significant upregulation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) proteins in the plasma membrane of BCE group. In conclusion, dietary BCE significantly reduced blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in association with increased basal GLP-1 concentration in plasma, upregulation of PC1/3 expression, and translocation of Glut4 to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice; furthermore, these effects were accompanied by activation of AMPK. Our findings demonstrated that D3R-rich BCE may help prevent diabetes and allow the dosages of diabetes drugs to be reduced.
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is present in foods such as barley, corn, and wheat flour. GlcCer derived from different foods has differences in its physiological effects, depending on the sphingoid backbone and constituent fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and skin conditioning effects of GlcCer derived from torula yeast (Candida utilis) in healthy human subjects. The participants were randomly distributed in a crossover, double-blind comparative manner. Seventeen volunteers were orally administered both 1.8 mg/d of GlcCer derived from torula yeast and a placebo for 4 wk. Before and after oral administration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and the objective skin condition observation and a questionnaire on skin condition were conducted. The primary endpoint was TEWL; secondary endpoints included the objective and subjective skin conditions. The change in TEWL over the study period on the forearm was −0.97±0.48 and −1.26±0.46 g/m2•h in the placebo and GlcCer groups, respectively, with significantly lower (p=0.01) TEWL observed in the GlcCer group. Brown spots increased in the placebo group but significantly decreased in the GlcCer group (p=0.04). Although chapped skin worsened in the placebo group, it significantly improved in the GlcCer group (p=0.04). The use of torula yeast-derived GlcCer as a functional cosmeceutical food is a viable option to ameliorate skin conditions, including improvement in skin barrier function, reduction of brown spots, and fixation of chapped skin.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the infrarenal aorta. Epidemiologic data have clearly linked tobacco smoking to aneurysm formation and a faster rate of expansion. It suggested that nicotine, one of the main ingredients of tobacco, has been suggested to be associated with AAA development and rupture. In the condition where no established drugs are available; therefore, an effective approach to prevent the vascular damage from nicotine consumption may be the use of dietary functional food factors. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary components and AAA. In this study, we estimated the effect of dietary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on the vascular wall. After habituation for 5 d, the mice were divided into four groups: control diet and distilled water group (C), DNA-Na diet and distilled water group (DNA), control diet and 0.5 mg/mL nicotine solution group (C-Nic), DNA-Na diet, and 0.5 mg/mL nicotine solution group (DNA-Nic). The dietary DNA attenuated the degradation of elastin fibers induced by nicotine administration. The areas stained positive for MMP-2 in the DNA-Nic group were significantly suppressed compared to C-Nic mice. These data suggest that the dietary DNA may prevent the weakening of the aortic wall via inhibition of the MMP-2-dependent pathway. In conclusion, we have revealed the protective effect of dietary DNA on the vascular pathology of nicotine-administrated mice. A nucleic acid-rich diet might be useful for people who consume nicotine via smoking, chewing tobacco, or nicotine patches.
The current adverse event reporting system for dietary supplements lacks the ability to collect and analyze ongoing case reports in sufficient numbers to detect health issues. We conducted an online survey to collect data on skin manifestations due to supplement use in consumers and to identify the suspected products and ingredients. An online survey was conducted among 63,737 dietary supplement users in 2016. Those who self-reported experiences of skin anthema or itching caused by supplement use and recognized a causal relationship as almost certain (0.8%) were invited to provide further details of symptoms and products. Most of the users experienced mild symptoms with “itching and/or rash of body part.” After the onset of skin manifestations, 69.3% ceased supplement use, while 26.6% continued supplement use, including those who reduced the amount or frequency of use. Respondents who visited the hospital in response to symptoms accounted for 26.0%, while 53.3% did not seek treatment. The products used were identified in 155 of 300 eligible respondents. Although those products were composed of multiple ingredients, the accumulated data suggested that cutaneous symptoms were related to the following constituents: “Peptides or animal by-products” (31.0%), “Herbal/Botanical” (23.2%) and “Fats and lipid” (13.5%). Conducting an online survey to elicit information directly from consumers identified components of supplements that are involved in skin manifestations that could lead to serious damage, and may fill a void in the current adverse event reporting system.
The semi-solidified nutrition supplemented with soluble dietary fiber, xanthan gum (XG), inhibited postprandial glycemia in rats. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether XG exerts the same effects in humans. Subjects fasted for 12 h and then ingested the enteral nutrient, Meibalance with or without XG at 9 AM. Blood glucose levels were measured 0, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after its ingestion. Postprandial blood glucose levels were lower in the XG group than in the control group. At 20 min, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the XG group (84±5.3 mg/dL) than in the control group (107±7.8 mg/dL) (p<0.05). A significant difference was also observed in ΔAUC between the two groups. These results demonstrate that XG exerts inhibitory effects on glucose excursion in humans.
-Gingerol possesses various beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate intestinal contraction. Recently, our group observed that the serosal administration of -gingerol stimulated electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in both the mucosal epithelium and the muscle layers in the colon. In the present study, we assessed whether -gingerol stimulated sodium absorption via TRPV1 in the colonic mucosal epithelium. We compared the effect of -gingerol on TRPV1-dependent colonic sodium absorption in the colon preparation with or without muscle layer. All experiments were performed by measuring the transmural potential difference (ΔPD) in an Ussing chamber system. -Gingerol induced positive ΔPD when administered to the serosal side of the colon, and this effect was significantly larger in the colon preparation without muscle layer than in that with the muscle layer. In the colon preparation without muscle layer, the -gingerol-dependent induction of ΔPD was markedly suppressed by mucosal addition of amiloride, a selective inhibitor of epithelial sodium channel. ΔPD induction by -gingerol was considerably diminished by capsazepine, an inhibitor of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, but not by AP-18, an inhibitor of TRPA1. These results suggest that -gingerol induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via TRPV1 expressed in the colonic mucosal epithelium, and that this effect is independent of TRPV1 in the colonic muscle layer.
2-Oxo acids derived from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids are key intermediates in energy production. During diabetes, energy production is known to be lower than in healthy individuals. However, it was unknown whether the production of 2-oxo acids is impacted by diabetes. In the present study, I compared the quantities of 2-oxo acids (pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, 2-oxoisovaleric acid, 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid, and 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid) excreted in the urine of normoglycemic control rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, which reflect the quantities of unused 2-oxo acids in the body. Greater urinary excretion of unused 2-oxo acids thus implies an impairment in energy production. The respective quantities of urinary pyruvic acid + oxaloacetic acid (measured together), 2-oxoglutaric acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, 2-oxoisovaleric acid, 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid, and 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid in the diabetic rats were 2.0- (p<0.0001), 2.5- (p<0.0001), 1.5- (p=0.008), 7.6- (p<0.0001), 6.1- (p<0.0001), and 2.1-fold (p<0.0001) greater than in the control rats per 1 g food intake. Thus, the biggest differences were observed in 2-oxoisovaleric acid (a catabolite of valine) and 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid (a catabolite of isoleucine). These findings indicate that energy production in the body is suppressed under diabetic conditions.
Skeletal muscle is composed of four types of fibers in mammals; oxidative slow-twitch type I, oxidative fast-twitch IIA, and glycolytic fast-twitch IIB and IIX/D. In this study using C2C12 myotubes, an extract of soybean protein significantly upregulated mRNA level of myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), the predominant isoform expressed in oxidative slow-twitch type I and downregulated mRNA levels of Myh4, the predominant isoform expressed in glycolytic fast-twitch IIB. Similarly, its hydrolysate prepared using digestive enzyme also significantly increased Myh7 expression. In contrast, no significant change was observed in Myh4 mRNA level after the hydrolysate treatment. These findings suggest that dietary intake of the soybean protein extract may increase oxidative slow-twitch fiber in skeletal muscle.
Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.) have various benefits for human health. In particular, a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant was found to be an immunostimulating food ingredient in a mouse model. We named a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In a previous clinical study, we reported that CAPS affects skin dehydration, demonstrating its effectiveness against skin inflammation was related to atopic dermatitis; skin inflammation caused skin dehydration. However, there are no studies regarding CAPS effectiveness against skin dehydration. The current study aimed to investigate CAPS effectiveness against skin dehydration. We further demonstrate the effect of oral administration of CAPS on skin dehydration caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced inflammation in mice. We found that CAPS administration suppresses skin dehydration caused by UV irradiation. We also found that CAPS decreases interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase transcription levels in the mouse skin. These results show that CAPS improves skin hydration in UV-irradiated mice.