2005 Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 595-600
To determine the effects of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) dosage and swimming exercise training during 4 weeks on bone metabolic turnover in rats, seven-week-old female 24 Wister-Kyoto (WKY) rats were investigated by bone status including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical markers from blood and urine. Twenty-four rats (initial weight: 191.2±7.6 g) were randomly divided into four groups: baseline (8 weeks old) control group (n=6, BC), 4-week control group (n=6, Con), 4-week swimming exercise loading group (n=6, Swim) and 4-week chronic NH4Cl dosage group (n=6, Acid). All rats were fed an AIN93M diet (Ca: 0.5%, P: 0.3%), and both Con and Swim groups were pair-fed by feeding volume of the NH4Cl dosage group. The acid group only received 0.25 M NH4Cl distilled water ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, rats were sacrificed with blood drawn and femur and tibia were removed for analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In the Swim group, 24-hour urinary deoxypiridinoline (Dpd) excretion, reflecting bone resorption, was significantly increased (p<0.05) with a tendency towards decrease of BMD (N.S.), and body weight and abdominal fat weight were decreased in approximately 7% (p<0.05) and 58% (p<0.001), as compared with age matched Con rats. In the Acid group, 24-hour urinary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) excretion were increased approximately 2.1-fold (p<0.05) and 2.0-fold (p<0.01), respectively, with increase of kidney weight as much as in the Con groups. Serum Ca and P concentration, as well as urinary Dpd excretion were, however, not significantly changed. These results suggest that blood Ca and P concentrations in the chronic acidosis condition during the 4-weeks might be maintained by hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia with kidney disorder, and swimming exercise training leads to decrease in BMD with stimulation of bone resorption and reduction of body fat.