2011 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 103-109
The purpose of this study was to formulate a “sleep/wake” scoring algorithm for processing activity measurements obtained using a newly developed nonwear actigraphy (NWA) device, and to test its validity. The NWA device has a highly sensitive pressure sensor and is placed under a mattress. It can continuously record the activity of a person lying on the mattress and identify an “in-bed/out-of-bed” state from the vibrations of the mattress. We formulated the sleep/wake scoring algorithm by using data obtained simultaneously by wrist actigraphy (Act) and the NWA device in 33 healthy participants. Agreement rate, sensitivity, and specificity with Act were 95.7%, 97.6%, and 75.8% (33 healthy people); the corresponding values were 85.9%, 89.1%, and 79.8% for 12 nursing home residents and 93.7%, 97.2%, and 60.8% for 60 nights for 6 healthy persons who slept 10 nights on their futons. Agreement rate, sensitivity, and specificity with polysomnography were in almost perfect agreement with Act (12 nights; 6 healthy persons who slept 2 nights). All our validation results indicate that the NWA device, placed under a mattress or a futon, can produce almost identical sleep/wake scores to Act. It is expected that the NWA device, a nonwear device for scoring sleep/wake and in-bed/out-of-bed, enables convenient long-term sleep-related evaluation in various fields, including hospital settings, home-care settings, and care facility settings such as nursing homes.