2019 Volume 75 Issue 4 Pages 293-307
The authors found that frost damage of RC did not occur isotropically because of the presence of reinforcing bars, and consequently, mechanical responses of RC elements were significantly influenced by loading directions. There-fore, anisotropic damage models of frost-damaged RC elements were developed and introduced in three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis (3D-NLFEA) to simulate static failure behavior of RC beams subjected to freeze-thaw action. In the analysis, the anisotropic expansion in a section of RC beams was evaluated by a coupled equation of heat and moisture transfer. The calculated strains were given to 3D-NLFEA as initial strains, and then the damage introduced by the initial strains were considered in the anisotropic damage models. The analysis method could successfully predict not only load-deflection responses but also failure modes which were different from that of RC beams without frost damage.