The Japanese Journal of Dysphagia Rehabilitation
Online ISSN : 2434-2254
Print ISSN : 1343-8441
Original Paper
The Relationship between the Difference in Adhesiveness of Biscuits and the Function of Eating and Swallowing
―The Number of the Chewing Strokes and Swallowing, the Chewing and Swallowing Time, and the Amount of Food Residues in the Oral Cavity―
Hiroko TAKUMIHiroyasu NAKAMURAShinichi FUKUDASio MATSUDAAkiko KOJOTomohisa OHNOKoso SHIRAISHITakashi KOMETANIIchiro FUJISHIMAHiroshi UEMATSU
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2009 Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 183-191

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Abstract

This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the difference in adhesiveness of biscuits and the function of eating and swallowing.

Two types of cream sand biscuits: normal biscuits, biscuits with normal nutrient contents; less adhesive biscuits, less adhesive and more easily triturated biscuits during mastication than the normal biscuits were used in this study. Thirty healthy adults (mean age: 32.7±7.3 years), twenty elderly people without trouble to eating biscuits (mean age: 72.5±4.4 years), and eleven stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation without trouble to eating biscuits (mean age: 63.2±11.4 years) participated in the study after giving informed consent. We measured the amount of food residues in the oral cavity and the number of the chewing strokes, the chewing time, the number of times of swallowing, and the swallowing duration. A sensory assessment was conducted for each participant. The results were compared within each group and among the three different groups.

There was no difference in the amount of food residues between the normal biscuits and the less adhesive biscuits in the healthy adults. On the other hand, the amount of food residues of the less adhesive biscuits was significantly less than that of the normal biscuits in the elderly people and the stroke patients (p<0.01–0.05). The amount of food residues of the normal biscuits eaten by the elderly people and the stroke patients was larger than that of the healthy adults (p<0.01–0.10).

The number of chewing strokes while masticating the less adhesive biscuits by the healthy adults and the elderly people was less than that of the normal biscuits (p<0.01). The chewing time while masticating the less adhesive biscuits in all the three groups was shorter than that of the normal biscuits(p<0.01-0.05). The elderly people and the stroke patients needed more chewing strokes and longer chewing time to eat either type of biscuit than the healthy adults (p<0.01–0.05).

The number of times of swallowing for the less adhesive biscuits was smaller than that for swallowing the normal biscuits in the healthy adults and the elderly people (p<0.01–0.05).The swallowing time of the less adhesive biscuits was shorter than that of the normal biscuits in the healthy adults(p<0.05).

The healthy adults and the elderly people gave higher scores for the less adhesive biscuits than the normal biscuits in the sensory assessment of adhesiveness and disintegration.

Our findings suggest that less adhesive biscuits would be more suitable for elderly people and patients with dysphagia. Regarding oral hygiene, it might be important to provide those people with foods that leave less residues in the oral cavity after swallowing.

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© 2009 The Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation
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