2009 Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 388-394
Human noroviruses(HuNoVs)are the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. However, no cell culture system for HuNoVs is available, so little is known about the efficacy of various disinfectants against HuNoVs. Cultivable murine norovirus(MNV)was used as a novel surrogate for HuNoVs to evaluate the efficacy of five types of chlorine-based and alcohol-based commercial disinfectants to MNV using the TCID50 method. MNV was inactivated to more than 99.998%(4.8 log10)and reached the detection limit by 200 ppm of chlorine-based disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and dichloroisocyanuric acid sodium, with contact time of 30 seconds. Moreover, MNV was inactivated at 99.99%(4 log10)using chlorine-based disinfectants at a final dilution concentration of 125 ppm with contact time of 30 seconds. Three types of alcohol-based commercial disinfectants, 70 v/v% ethanol, 0.18 w/v% chlorhexidine gluconate with 72 v/v% ethanol, and 0.18 w/v% benzalkonium chloride with 75 v/v% ethanol, all reduced MNV to titers below the detection limit with contact time of 30 seconds. Chlorine-based disinfectants showed great efficacy against MNV even if diluted to 125 ppm. In addition, alcohol-based disinfectants had adequate efficacy against MNV if used without dilution(ethanol concentrations of more than 70 v/v%). These results suggest that these disinfectants can inactivate HuNoVs. The five types of commercially available disinfectants tested here can be used to prevent norovirus infection.