Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology
Online ISSN : 1880-9952
Print ISSN : 1346-4280
ISSN-L : 1346-4280
Case Study
Cytopenias and clonal expansion of gamma/delta T-cells in a patient with anaplasmosis: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
Daniel MarkoAnamarija M. PerryArjuna PonnampalamMichel R. Nasr
Author information

2017 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 160-164


Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a rare, tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Herein, we report a rare case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis associated with cytopenias and clonal expansion of gamma/delta T-cells in the bone marrow. A 77-year old man presented multiple times to the emergency department complaining of muscle weakness. Complete blood count detected cytopenias and peripheral blood smear showed pseudo Pelger-Huet neutrophils. These findings prompted bone marrow evaluation with ancillary studies including flow cytometry, karyotyping and T-cell rearrangement studies. Careful examination of peripheral blood smear revealed very rare neutrophils with intracytoplasmic inclusions, suggestive of ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis. Bone marrow evaluation showed dyserythropoiesis, dysmegakaryopoiesis and prominence of hemophagocytic histiocytes. Furthermore, an increased number of T-cells was seen in the bone marrow and flow cytometry showed excess of gamma/delta T-cells, while T-cell rearrangement studies detected a T-cell clone. Serologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of anaplasmosis. This case nicely illustrates hematologic sequelae of infection with Anaplasma and potential diagnostic pitfalls, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of clonal expansion of gamma/delta T-cells associated with anaplasmosis. Pathologists should be careful and vigilant when screening peripheral blood smears, as they are often the first to raise the suspicion of anaplasmosis.

Information related to the author
© 2017 by The Japanese Society for Lymphoreticular Tissue Research
Previous article Next article