2014 Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 65-75
To explore the cost reduction of water reclamation and reuse facilities in developing countries, a simple ceramic filter made of local materials, such as clay and rice bran, was used in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. The feasibility of applying suction filtration to an MBR with a simple ceramic filter was examined by a laboratory-scale experiment; successful results using gravity filtration were reported in a previous paper. The BOD removal performance was satisfactory and demonstrated the feasibility of reusing effluent water for many purposes. The MBR operation with a flux less than 0.2 m/d showed a lower risk of fouling; increasing the flux caused an increase in fouling risk. The suction filtration and gravity filtration results were compared using the total resistance of the filter (R) and the resistance change rate (dR/dt). The R and dR/dt values were estimated higher in the suction filtration compared to those in the gravity filtration. The high dR/dt seemed to cause the necessity of the filter cleaning. The gravity filtration was suggested to be a more advantageous operation than the suction filtration in MBR using the simple ceramic filter.