2020 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 170-185
Communication between screens and cameras has attracted attention as a ubiquitous information source, motivated by the widespread use of smartphones and the increase of public information screens. The method that encodes data into visible patterns impairs the user's visual experience. Previously, embedding matrix barcodes into images on displays by utilizing imperceptible color vibration was proposed. In this approach, the visual experience is maintained considering that barcodes are imperceptible, and it can be implemented on almost any display and camera. Herein, we describe a sophisticated modulation protocol and restoration procedure whereby device characteristics such as the display's gamma feature and the smartphone's rolling shutter are taken into consideration. Extensive experiments reveal the parameters for the modulation and that this system works under practical situations. In addition, scenarios of potential practical applications and a user study examining imperceptibility of barcodes and usability of the system are presented to illustrate the technological capabilities.