2021 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 134-142
Physics-informed machine learning has recently been shown to efficiently learn complex trajectories of nonlinear dynamical systems, even when order and chaos coexist. However, care must be taken when one or more variables are unbounded, such as in rotations. Here we use the framework of Hamiltonian Neural Networks (HNN) to learn the complex dynamics of nonlinear single and double pendulums, which can both librate and rotate, by mapping the unbounded phase space onto a compact cylinder. We clearly demonstrate that our approach can successfully forecast the motion of these challenging systems, capable of both bounded and unbounded motion. It is also evident that HNN can yield an energy surface that closely matches the surface generated by the true Hamiltonian function. Further we observe that the relative energy error for HNN decreases as a power law with number of training pairs, with HNN clearly outperforming conventional neural networks quantitatively.