2013 Volume 16 Issue 3 Pages 247-254
Photoperiodic sensitivity is one of the most important factors determining whether a crop can adapt to and be cultivated under a broad range of conditions. In common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), flowering time (flowering of the first flower) is a complex trait influenced by photoperiod, light quality, and temperature, which change daily under natural conditions, and their interaction. Common buckwheat shows a large genetic variation because of the outcrossing reproductive strategy of this species. Thus, flowering time variation within a population reflects both environmental and genotypic variations, and accurate evaluation of photoperiodic sensitivity in common buckwheat requires cultivation under controlled environmental conditions. Here, we investigated photoperiodic sensitivity and its genetic diversity in two buckwheat cultivars, the autumn ecotype Miyazakizairai and the summer ecotype Botansoba, by controlling photoperiod during cultivation under the same temperature regime. Our results showed that (1) the summer ecotype consisted of early-flowering genotypes, including genotypes not found in the autumn ecotype; (2) the autumn ecotype consisted of various genotypes, including early-flowering genotypes and a large number of late-flowering genotypes not found in the summer ecotype; (3) the autumn ecotype showed larger genetic diversity than the summer ecotype in long-day treatments; and (4) genetic diversity first became evident in the 14.5-hr photoperiod in the autumn ecotype, and in the 15.0-hr photoperiod in the summer ecotype. These results support the hypothesis based on previous studies that common buckwheat summer ecotypes were derived from autumn ecotypes by adaptation to climate in northern Japan.
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