2015 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 13-19
This research was performed with the objective of clarifying the effect of welding speed on melt flows during melt-run welding of SUS304 stainless steel plates with a 6-kW power laser beam on the basis of three-dimensional X-ray transmission in-situ observation. As welding speed increased from 25 mm/s to 250 mm/s, three kinds of welds characterized by porosity formation, no defects or underfilling due to spatters were produced. The average and the maximum values of measured melt flow velocity were three and ten times higher than the welding speed, respectively. Two kinds of circulation flows at the inlet or the tip of a keyhole were confirmed to control heat transfer in a molten pool. It was found that the circulation flows were so sensitive to the welding speed that bubbles resulting in porosity or spatters were often formed. Accoriding to the X-ray observation of the spatters formation with tungsten carbide (WC) tracers, as the melt flow rose along the keyhole wall, the velocity was accelerated from 0.24 m/s to 0.54 m/s near the keyhole inlet. Consequently, the melt flows made the convex surface behind the keyhole grow higher, resulting in spattering.