2016 Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 107-116
Surface ruptures associated with the 2014 Kamishiro fault earthquake (Mj 6.7), appeared along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic line active fault system in the northern part of Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. We photographed it with digital cameras mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Digital surface models (DSMs) were generated from the acquired photographs by applying SfM-MVS technology. The UAVs used in this study were the F450 and Phantom 2 manufactured by DJI Inc., and the cameras were the GR model manufactured by RICOH Inc. and were attached to each UAV for aerial photography. The ground control points required for generating DSMs using SfM-MVS analysis were measured using an RTK-GNSS (Leica GPS900), and the topographic profiles used for the accuracy assessment of the DSMs were measured in situ using a total station (Leica TCR705) and digital auto level (SOKKIA SDL50).
As a result, we were able to create DSMs and ortho-photographs at the resolution of a few centimeters. The accuracy was assessed by comparing the topographic profiles measured by the total station and leveling with those generated by the DSMs. Validation against the nine topographic profiles revealed that the DSM had a relative height error of 4.0cm with an average standard deviation.
Taking photographs from a UAV is one of the quickest and most cost-effective methods to record detailed surface topography. Generating a DSM of surface ruptures using UAV photography with SfM-MVS is particularly advantageous because ruptures will change their features quickly, and surface topographic variations of 10 cm or less cannot be recognized in field observations.