Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice
Online ISSN : 1883-6267
Print ISSN : 0373-1006
A multi-layer heat balance model of snow cover adaptable to intensely cold regions
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1998 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 131-141


A one-dimensional model has been developed to simulate temporal change of snow cover in intensely cold regions. This model can calculate the profiles of snow temperature, density and liquid water content using meteorological data inputs. The model structure is simple having snow layers with the same thickness; the treatment of liquid water flow and albedo is also very simple. Effective temperature gradient is introduced to treat the depth hoar which is frequently observed in cold regions, thus we can consider the change of thermal conductivity and compactive viscosity coefficient by depth hoar formation. The ratio of snow to rain in the precipitation is given as a function of wet-bulb temperature. The model was validated for the snow cover at Sapporo and AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System)stations in east Hokkaido. We simulated the snow depth, water equivalent of snow, and profiles of snow temperature and density at Sapporo, and depth hoar formation in east Hokkaido.

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