2020 Volume 16 Pages 198-205
Heavy rainfalls often occur when a tropical cyclone (TC) exists on the sea off the south coast. These pre-typhoon rainfalls (PRE) is associated with the northward moisture transport ahead of the TC. In this paper, we examine the northward moisture transport by the ageostrophic winds associated with typhoon T0918 (Melor) and its impact on PRE. According to a numerical simulation conducted in the previous study (Saito 2019), we analyzed the northward moisture fluxes by reproduced geostrophic and ageostrophic winds. Although the southerly ageostrophic winds are dominant mainly in the upper levels, the ageostrophic winds contribute to enhance the poleward water vapor transport for the upper and middle levels above 3 km.
To see the impact of the ageostrophic moisture transport on PRE, we conducted a sensitivity experiment where the model moisture in middle and upper levels over the sea off the south coast of western Japan was reduced. Precipitation over western Japan was decreased about 30% when the contributions in moisture fluxes by ageostrophic winds were removed. This result suggests that the northward ageostrophic winds associated with a TC enhance PRE by moistening the middle and upper atmosphere.