1988 Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1593-1600
Studies were made of the depression, splashing of liquids and bath movement caused by jet streams impinging vertically on the surface of bath. Majority of them was performed by means of compressed air-water system except for splashing which was done by the use of various liquids.
The depth of a cavity was not contradictory to the previous knowledge. The diameter of a cavity was dependent not only lance height but also jet momentum, which was described by momentum number through dimensional analysis.
Generally, an increase in jet momentum or a decrease in lance height resulted in an increase in splashing to the maximum. However, beyond a certain critical value the amount of splashing decreased. A good correlation was observed between the ratio of the amount of splashing to that of jet stream and momentum number. The direction of splashing was mostly dependent on the profile of a cavity estimated from its depth and diameter.
The ratio of the momentum of bath movement to that of jet stream was found to be proportional to 0.13th power of momentum number. This phenomenon could be explained by an introduction of the mechanism that the momentum transferred from jet to bath is proportional to the area of a cavity and jet velocity at the cavity surface.