Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Online ISSN : 1881-915X
Print ISSN : 0914-9198
ISSN-L : 0914-9198
Original Article
Pathological analysis of batch safety testing of veterinary vaccines using small laboratory animals
Kasumi SudoMariko OchiaiNaoyuki AiharaNoriyuki HoriuchiAtsushi YamamotoSachiko MatsumotoKoji Oishi
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JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

2021 Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 137-146

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Abstract

Batch safety tests (BSTs) of veterinary vaccines are conducted using small laboratory animals to assure the safety of vaccines according to several criteria, including clinical signs and change in body weight. Although the latter is used as an evaluation index in BSTs, there have been no reports on the internal changes that affect body weight during the test period. Therefore, we analyzed BST via pathological examination of the tested animals. Here, BSTs were performed for 176 batches using mice and 126 batches using of guinea pigs. Most of the gross findings could be classified into four lesion types (nodules, adhesions, ascites, no apparent signs), with only one vaccine inducing lesions that could not be classified into any of these four types. Histopathological examination revealed that the reactions caused by BST were pyogenic and/or granulomatous inflammation. Nodular or adhesive lesions comprised more severe pyogenic granulomatous inflammation than ascites or cases with no apparent gross lesions. These nodular or adhesive lesions were more frequently induced by vaccines that contained an adjuvant than by vaccines that did not contain an adjuvant. The cases with “exceptional” gross findings histologically presented severe necrosis of the hematopoietic system. Additional testing showed that these “exceptional” lesions were induced when a specific type of light liquid paraffin was injected along with other vaccine additives. Our results show that body weight loss and/or lesions during BST were induced by proinflammatory properties of the tested vaccines and that BST is a sensitive method for detecting unexpected effects of vaccine components.

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© 2021 The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology
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