Malignancies in the head and neck region requires multidiscipl inary treatment
and collaboration among head and neck surgery, neurosurgery, an d plastic and
reconstructive surgery, as well as oral surgery, pediatrics, rehabilitation, and psychiatry.
Head and neck reconstruction in children with the use of a free flap is characterized
by small, short blood vessels, a relatively large head, and the need for consideration
of disruption of growth disturbance at the donor site of the fla p. The perforator flap
has less donor site morbidity and is very useful in children. H owever, children have
smaller vessels than adults, requiring supermicrosurgical techniques. Learning of
supermicrosurgical techniques should have an important role in increasing the options
in free flap transfer in children.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are performed for the treatment of cancer in
children, especially leukemia. But, the side effects of these tr eatments are a problem
of continuing concern, and improving the patient's quality of life (QOL) following
successful treatment remains a challenge. Especially with radiation therapy, disorders
of reproductive function are considerable, and cases of inferti lity are extremely high.
Currently, research on the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue i s being energetically
pursued, but because of factors such as reduction in number of egg cells and physical
disruption due to tissue fragmentation, the successful fertiliz ation rate of the thawed
ovum has been extremely low. Accordingly, cryopreservation of t he ovaries as an
entire organ has been attempted, but this has yielded little success. This study focused
on a method for cryopreservation through the application of sup ercooling under a
variable magnetic field, and the development of a freezing syste m allowing for an
arbitrary change in frequency of magnetic field applied to the specimen. To confirm the
interrelation between a variable magnetic field and supercooling, physiological saline
solution was frozen under a variable magnetic field, and the pro gress and stabilization
of supercooling was verified for magnetic field frequencies from 200 to 200 kHz.
Additionally, ovaries were frozen under magnetic field, and histological assessment of
the tissue was performed.
Brain tumors have the highest incidence of childhood solid can cers and they also
have the highest mortality rate among childhood cancers. One fa ctor cited for
improved prognosis in cancer is improvement in surgical extraction rate, but types
of childhood brain tumors are more diverse in comparison to tho se of adults, and it
is at present exceedingly difficult for even an experienced pathologist to perform an
accurate diagnosis. We have developed a technique for freezing under magnetic field
for the purpose of internal organ cryopreservation, and we cond ucted this study after
considering that this freezing technique could be useful for ra pid diagnosis utilizing
frozen tissue during surgery. Results showed the arrangement of neurons to be in much
better order with brain tissue frozen under magnetic field than that which was frozen
by liquid nitrogen. For pancreatic tissue, it was found that in sulin staining was clearer
for freezing performed under magnetic field than with liquid nitrogen. In short, we found
that this technique is not simply for the preservation of tissu e, but has the potential to
improve the accuracy of pathological diagnosis and surgical ext raction rate as well
as limiting chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This is the principal outcome that will
contribute to an improved quality of life (QOL) for childhood cancer patients.
Edited and published by : The University of Tokyo, Academic Collaboration Society/Japan Academic Collaboration Medical Society Produced and listed by : The University of Tokyo, Academic Collaboration Society/Japan Academic Collaboration Medical Society