The characteristics in AERD are severe adult-onset asthma, eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, and CysLT overproduction. The cause of AERD have remained unclear, however the decrease in the production of PGE2 caused by the reduction in COX-2 activity is considered to main pathological mechanism of AERD. The mast cell activation and the interaction between platelets and granulocytes are lead to the CysLT overproduction and severe eosinophilic inflammation. The ongoing activation of mast cells is important key pathogenesis in not only stable AERD but exacerbated AERD by aspirin and NSAIDs. In recent years, type 2 inflammation caused by ILC2 activation in patients with AERD have been attracting attention. Omalizumab is effective option for AERD via suppression of mast cell activation and CysLT overproduction. Dupilumab improves sinus symptoms especially in patients with AERD. In near future, anti-platelet drug, CRTH2 antagonist, and anti-TSLP antibody may be useful candidates of therapeutic options in patients with AERD.
Cetuximab, the IgG1 subclass chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody biologic that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used worldwide for the treatment of EGFR-positive unresectable progressive/recurrent colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Research has shown that the principal cause of cetuximab-induced anaphylaxis is anti-oligosaccharide IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) oligosaccharide present on the mouse-derived Fab portion of the cetuximab heavy chain. Furthermore, it has been revealed that patients who are allergic to cetuximab also develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat containing the same α-Gal oligosaccharide owing to cross-reactivity, and the presumed cause of sensitization is tick bites: Amblyomma in the United States, Ixodes in Australia and Europe, and Haemaphysalis in Japan. The α-Gal-specific IgE test (bovine thyroglobulin-conjugated ImmunoCAP) or CD63-expression-based basophil activation test may be useful to identify patients with IgE to α-Gal in order to predict risk for cetuximab-induced anaphylactic shock. Investigations of cetuximab-related anaphylaxis have revealed three novel findings that improve our understanding of immediate-type allergy: 1) oligosaccharide can serve as the main IgE epitope of anaphylaxis; 2) because of the oligosaccharide epitope, a wide range of cross-reactivity with mammalian meats containing α-Gal similar to cetuximab occurs; and 3) tick bites are a crucial factor of sensitization to the oligosaccharide. Nonetheless, taking a medical history of tick bites and beef allergy may be insufficient to prevent cetuximab-induced anaphylaxis, and therefore blood testing with an α-Gal-specific IgE test, with high sensitivity and specificity, is necessary to detect sensitization to α-Gal.
The aim of this review was to provide an updated overview of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DiHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Several new insights have been made, particularly with regards to the diagnosis, pathogenesis and care of some important complications and sequelae. The indication of herpesvirus reactivations in diagnosis in the assessment of disease severity is now better specified. Nevertheless, because fatal complications and autoimmune sequelae have been under-recognized, there is a clear need to identify effective parameters for assessing disease severity and predicting prognosis of the disease in the early phase. In this regard, we have established a scoring system that can be used to monitor severity, predict prognosis and stratify the risk of developing severe complications including fatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Regulatory T cells are likely to be central to the mechanism and would represent potential targets for therapeutic approaches that can ameliorate inflammatory responses occurring at the acute phase while preventing the subsequent development of harmful outcomes, such as CMV disease and autoimmune diseases.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease. The presence of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is frequently detected on skin affected with AD. In this review, we focused on the characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from AD skin, particularly the proteins on the cell surface that modulates the interactions between Langerhans cell, keratinocyte, and S. aureus. The skin microbiome plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the skin, and colonization of S. aureus in AD is considered to be deeply involved in the clinical manifestation and pathogenesis of skin flares. Colonizing S. aureus strains in AD harbor different surface proteins at the strain level, which are indicated as clonal complexes. Moreover, the cell wall proteins of S. aureus affect skin adhesion and induce altered immune responses. S. aureus from AD skin (AD strain) exhibits internalization into keratinocytes and induces imbalanced Th1/Th2 adaptive immune responses via Langerhans cells. AD strain-derived cell wall proteins and secreted virulence factors are expected to represent therapeutic targets. In addition, the microbiome on the AD skin surface is associated with skin immunity; thus, microbiome-based immunotherapy, whose mechanism of action completely differs from that of typical steroid ointments, are expected to be developed in the future.
Background: Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially fatal allergic response. Early-life exposure to rural environments may help protect against allergic reaction. This study assesses urban/rural differences by age and race/ethnicity in emergency department (ED) pediatric visit rates for food-induced anaphylaxis.
Methods: This observational study examined 2009-2014 inpatient and ED data from New York and Florida, using ICD-9-CM diagnostic code (995.6) to identify food-induced anaphylaxis cases <18 y/o. Primary predictor of interest was urban/rural setting, with race/ethnicity and age also evaluated. Associations between ED visit rates and urban/rural setting were evaluated by multivariable hierarchical negative binomial regression with state and year fixed effects.
Results: ED visit rates (per 100,000) for food-induced anaphylaxis were 12.31 and 4.60 in urban and rural settings, respectively. Rates were highest among Blacks (15.26) younger urban children (17.29) and older rural children (6.99). Compared to rural, urban children had significantly higher anaphalaxis ED visit rates (IRR 2.77).
Conclusions: Food-induced anaphylaxis ED visit rates were highest among younger urban children and Black children, with a notable contrast in age distribution between urban and rural rates. Higher urban rates may be attributed to Hygiene Hypothesis, though racial, economic and emergency care access disparities may also influence these outcomes.
Background: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated lung disease induced by the inhalation of a wide variety of antigens and a persistent antigen exposure induces inevitably pulmonary fibrosis in chronic HP. Although neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to lung inflammation in acute phase of HP, there is no clear explanation as to how the immunological reaction occurs just after the inhalation of causative antigens in the chronic phase of HP.
Methods: We examined the inflammatory and immunologic profiles before and after the inhalation provocation test (IPT) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with chronic bird-related HP (BRHP) and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). We analyzed BALF samples from 39 patients (19 BRHP and 20 other ILDs) and serum samples from 25 consecutive patients (20 BRHP and 5 other ILDs) who underwent the IPT.
Results: A significant increase of neutrophils was observed in the BALF from the BRHP patients following the IPT. Neutrophil chemoattractants, namely, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and CXCL2 significantly increased in both the serum and BALF of the BRHP patients after the IPT. Serum IFN-γ and CXCL10, cytokines/chemokines that contributed to Th1 inflammation, were also significantly increased in BRHP following the IPT.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated the exposure to the causative antigen provoked acute neutrophilic and Th1 immunologic responses similar to acute HP even in the chronic phase of HP.
Background: Few papers have examined the association between the chemical components of PM2.5 and health effects. The existence of an association is now under discussion.
Methods: This case-crossover study aimed to examine the association between the chemical components of PM2.5 and night-time primary care visits (PCVs) due to asthma attacks. The subjects were 1251 children aged 0-14 years who received medical care for asthma at a municipal emergency clinic. We measured daily average concentrations of hydrogen ion, sulfate ion, nitrate ion and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), which are components of PM2.5. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of PCVs per unit increment (inter quartile ranges) in each chemical component of PM2.5 for the subgroups of warmer months and colder months separately.
Results: No association was seen between PCVs and PM2.5 mass concentrations the day before the PCVs in either warmer or colder months. In the warmer months, an association was seen with the concentrations of WSOCs and hydrogen ion the day before the PCVs (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.76, OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.36, respectively). Furthermore, a negative association was seen between sulfate ion and PCVs (OR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.74-0.98). No associations were observed in the colder months.
Conclusions: We observed a positive association between PCVs and certain concentrations of WSOCs and hydrogen ions in warmer months. In contrast, sulfate ion showed a negative association.
Background: Although the guidelines in most countries do not recommend continuous inhalation of l-isoproterenol to treat pediatric patients with acute severe exacerbation of asthma, lower dose of l-isoproterenol has been widely used in Japan. To determine whether the efficacy of low-dose l-isoproterenol was superior to that of salbutamol, we conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Hospitalized patients aged 1-17 years were eligible if they had severe asthma exacerbation defined by the modified pulmonary index score (MPIS). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive inhalation of l-isoproterenol (10 μg/kg/h) or salbutamol (500 μg/kg/h) for 12 hours via a large-volume nebulizer with oxygen. The primary outcome was the change in MPIS from baseline to 3 hours after starting inhalation. Trial registration number UMIN000001991.
Results: From December 2009 to October 2013, 83 patients (42 in the l-isoproterenol group and 41 in the salbutamol group) were enrolled into the study. Of these, one patient in the l-isoproterenol group did not receive the study drug and was excluded from the analysis. Compared with salbutamol, l-isoproterenol reduced MPIS more rapidly. Mean (SD) changes in MPIS at 3 hours were -2.9 (2.5) in the l-isoproterenol group and -0.9 (2.3) in the salbutamol group (difference -2.0, 95% confidence interval -3.1 to -0.9; P < 0.001). Adverse events occurred in 1 (2%) and 11 (27%) patients in the l-isoproterenol and salbutamol groups, respectively (P = 0.003). Hypokalemia and tachycardia occurred only in the salbutamol group.
Conclusions: Low-dose l-isoproterenol has a more rapid effect with fewer adverse events than salbutamol.
Background: The reported prevalences of IgG autoantibodies (AAbs) to FcεRIα and IgE in sera from patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) have varied, and these AAbs are also often observed in healthy control subjects. Regarding the histamine release activity of purified IgG from patients with CSU, the number of examined patients has been small. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence and FcεRI crosslinking ability of these AAbs in a large number of patients with CSU and non-atopic control (NC) subjects.
Methods: We compared the concentrations of anti-IgE and anti-FcεRIα AAbs and the abilities of these AAbs to cause FcεRI aggregation in patients with CSU (n = 134) and NC subjects (n = 55) using ELISA and an in vitro elicitation test, respectively.
Results: The concentration of anti-IgE AAbs was significantly different between the NC subjects and the CSU patients (P < 0.0001, cutoff value: 0.558 μg/mL), whereas the concentration of anti-FcεRIα AAbs was not. A significant difference in the duration of illness was noted between patients with lower and those with higher concentrations of anti-IgE AAbs relative to the cutoff value. The abilities of anti-IgE AAbs, but not anti-FcεRIα AAbs, to induce FcεRI crosslinking were significantly higher in CSU patients than in NC subjects (P = 0.0106).
Conclusions: In the Japanese population of CSU patients studied, the ability of the anti-IgE AAbs to induce FcεRI crosslinking differed significantly between NC subjects and CSU patients, suggesting the involvement of anti-IgE AAbs in the pathogenesis of CSU in the Japanese population.
Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an established efficacious approach for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). However, SLIT requires a long administration period to establish stable and adequate responses. This study investigated the efficacy of the sublingual administration of an allergen with liposomes enclosing α-GalCer (α-GC-liposome) as a potential adjuvant in mice with AR.
Methods: Mice with AR induced by OVA received the sublingual administration of OVA, α-GC-liposomes, or OVA plus α-GC-liposomes for 7 days. After nasal re-challenge with OVA, nasal symptoms were evaluated. The serum levels of OVA-specific Ig, the cytokine production of CD4+ T cells in the cultures of cervical lymph node (CLN) cells, and the gene expression of CLNs were analyzed.
Results: Although IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production from CD4+ T cells in CLN cells was significantly inhibited by the sublingual administration of OVA alone in mice with AR induced by OVA, their nasal symptoms were not significantly diminished. However, the combined sublingual administration of α-GC-liposomes and OVA completely suppressed nasal symptoms, downregulated Th2 and Th17 type cytokine production in CD4+ T cells as well as Th2 and Th17 gene expressions, and upregulated Th1 type cytokine production as well as Th1 gene expressions in CLN cells. Additionally, the serum levels of specific IgG2a were promoted, and specific IgE and IgG1 were inhibited.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the sublingual administration of an allergen with α-GC-liposomes as an adjuvant might increase the therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness of this treatment method.
Background: Periostin is an established biomarker of Th2 immune response and fibrogenesis. Recent research has indicated that periostin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. To clarify the relationship between periostin and pathogenesis in chronic bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and to reveal the usefulness of serum periostin levels in diagnosing and managing chronic bird-related HP.
Methods: We measured serum periostin in 63 patients with chronic bird-related HP, 13 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 113 healthy volunteers. We investigated the relationship between serum periostin and clinical parameters, and evaluated if the baseline serum periostin could predict the prognosis.
Results: Serum periostin was significantly higher in patients with chronic bird-related HP compared to the healthy volunteers. In chronic bird-related HP, serum periostin had significant positive correlations with serum KL-6 levels, the CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and fibrosis score on HRCT, and a significant negative correlation with the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. Chronic bird-related HP patients with serum periostin levels exceeding ≥92.5 ng/mL and ≥89.5 ng/mL had a significantly worse prognosis and significantly higher frequency of acute exacerbation, respectively. Higher serum periostin (92.5 ng/mL or higher; binary response for serum periostin) was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Serum periostin may reflect the extent of lung fibrosis and play an important role in pathogenesis of chronic bird-related HP. Elevated serum periostin could be a predictor of prognosis in patients with chronic bird-related HP.