This paper aims to clarify the new dispute resolution system for Islamic finance by examining its relationship with the conventional dispute resolution systems. Islamic finance has been developing rapidly and has expanded its presence in the Gulf region, especially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). At the same time, special regulations and legislations were established in order to maintain the stability of this market. There have been discussions around how Islamic financial cases being handled under the conventional legal system might induce the invasion of the Islamic legal jurisprudence as Islamic finance is based on Islamic law, Sharī‘a. During the latest financial crisis, there were some Islamic financial cases in Dubai. In those circumstances, a unique dispute resolution system was established that was neither the regular courts nor the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) system. Therefore, this paper will describe the general characteristics of this new dispute resolution system, which we call the ‘Dubai Approach.’
This paper aims to provide the original approach to reconsider the relations between Muslim and Christian Filipinos in the southern Philippines including the flexibility of boundaries between them.
Previous studies have focused on the hostility in the histories of the colonial experience and the separatist movement by Muslim anti-governmental groups since the late 1960s. On the other hand, some scholars insist that there are cases of friendly and intimate alliances in business and politics and cooperative movements by religious leaders and civil activists for peace building. These studies, however, have disregarded the flexible and vague relationships in the everyday lives of ordinary people. It is necessary to pay more attention to these everyday practices because they exhibit the reality of religious mixture zones and question the major discourses of “religious conflicts.”
For this purpose, this paper firstly examines the historical process of how people in the southern Philippines have been divided into two social categories, Muslim and Christian. Secondly, this paper explores the importance of an approach focusing on “intermarriage,” defined as marriage across the boundaries, to reconsider the relations between Muslims and Christians in the southern Philippines. The lives of intermarried families show various relationships among members holding different beliefs and identities and the process of changing boundaries because of people’s everyday practices to reconcile the differences.