We studied the relationship between the coordinated precision grip force of the thumb and index finger and the positions and associated movements of the little finger. Subjects (n = 10) pinched the pinch-meter and followed the target wave, which was made by a triangular wave and two horizontal waves. When following the target wave (TW) with precision grip, subjects preformed two tasks: changing the little finger positions to neutral, flexion and extension (Task-1) and performing flexed and extended movements (Task-2). The errors between TW and the following wave resulting from precision grip with the thumb and index finger were recorded. We found that the change of the little finger position and joint movements influenced the coordinated precision grip force. Furthermore, we found a relationship between the plus or minus directions of error, and the direction of the little finger's joint movements and little finger positions. This study indicates that the little finger position influences coordinated precision grip force, but showed no involvement between the thumb and the index finger.
Abstract: Authors provided education programs for certified caregivers to cope with elderly care recipients' behaviors caused by mental and cognitive impairments. Thirty-three participants enrolled in all of the programs consisting of lectures and case studies about the features of mental and cognitive functions among elderly people. Authors administered self-rating questionnaires about “feeling care difficulties” three times as follows: before and after the basic training, and after the follow-up training. Authors used Friedman's Test and Bonferroni multiple comparison of analyses for levels of difficulties. The levels of items for ‘understanding mental symptoms and anxiety’, ‘communication skills’ and ‘dealt with life disabilities’ were reduced significantly. The participants could better deal with care recipients because they understood the factors causing their behaviors. However, authors should clearly teach how to deal with behaviors such as silence. Furthermore, medical staff with mental patients should actively collaborate with certified caregivers to deal with deviant behavior.
In Occupational Therapy (OT) practice, practitioners assume that the skills and strategies taught to clients during rehabilitation will transfer to performance and participation in everyday life. Despite transfer serving as a practice foundation, outcome studies conclude that this assumption of transfer is not occurring and it often results in decreased efficacy of rehabilitation. This paper investigated key aspects of transfer and found concepts in the psychology literature that can support transfer of skills and strategies in OT. Six key principles proposed from educational psychology can serve as a guide for practitioners to better train for transfer. In this paper, we discuss the six principles and apply concepts from psychology. Each principle is supported with examples of how they may be incorporated into OT practice. If occupational therapists understand these principles and implement them in treatment, the efficacy of treatment may improve for many populations.
The present study aimed to determine the correlation of the Hand 20, a patient-based outcome evaluation widely used in Japan, with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and compare the results with those of previous studies on the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score. As a result of the study, it was found that the Hand 20 includes 5 items in the chapters of Body Functions, 23 items in the chapters of Activity/Participation, and 2 items in the chapters on Personal Factors in the ICF. The results show that the Hand 20 has a larger number of assessment items categorized into the muscle function (b740) and hand dexterity (d440) than that of DASH. The present study concludes that the Hand 20 is a measurement method suitable for assessing hand functions and performance. These findings provide insights to select appropriate outcome assessment methods and interpret outcomes between the two different methods.
The effects of postoperative therapy on psychological function following endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) have not been sufficiently investigated. This study investigated the effectiveness of instruction in tendon and nerve gliding exercises and activities of daily living (ADL) as postoperative treatment for 49 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were randomized into 2 groups (intervention and control). After surgery, tendon and nerve gliding exercises and instruction in ADL were performed only on the experimental group on the day of the surgery. All patients were examined preoperatively and again 5-13 days postoperatively. Outcomes of pain, numbness, sensation, range of motion (ROM), anxiety, ADL and quality of life (QOL) were compared between groups. Differences were seen in pain, static 2-point discrimination, ROM, anxiety, and QOL. Tendon and nerve gliding exercises and instruction in ADL after ECTR appear likely to accelerate recovery.
This study examined differences of the visual axis and pupil diameter between unassisted eating and robot-assisted eating in 12 healthy subjects. A digital video camera and an eye tracker were used for synchronous measurements. Subjects carried cereal with a spoon or a meal support robot. The upper extremity position at which the visual axis was removed from food was designated as the critical visual point (CVP). Pupil diameter and CVP were used as an index. The results showed a CVP in unassisted eating; the visual axis was centered on the food from the start of the motion while eating to the CVP. However, the results for assisted eating showed no CVP, and the visual axis was located on the food during eating. These findings suggest that a subject with no somatosensory information depends solely on visual information, and identifies distance from the spoon to the mouth by visual information in robot-assisted eating.