Three species of the coelotine spiders from the Shikoku and Kyushu Districts of Japan are reviewed. Coelotes towaensis Nishikawa 2009 and Coelotes sanoi Nishikawa 2009 have been described with only female specimens from Kochi Prefecture. The species are considered to be conspecific, and the former is regarded as a junior synonym of the latter. Furthermore, male of this species is described for the first time, and morphological and molecular differences are shown in comparison with Coelotes unicatus Yaginuma 1977 which is the closely related species of C. sanoi.
A new salticid species of the genus Chinattus is described as Chinattus falco sp. nov. For the present, this species is known from only Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. The new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the male palp with not-hooked retrolateral tibial apophysis and epigyne with slender scape.
The female of Onomastus kanoi Ono 1995 is described for the first time, with specimens from Okinawajima Island, Japan. Females of this species can be distinguished from those of the other known congeners by having long meandering internal canals of genitalia.
Lessert's rainbow spider, Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser 1934 is recorded from new localities in South India. The species is redescribed and illustrated in detail along with notes on natural history. A map showing the updated distributional range of the species is provided.
DNA from pseudoscorpions for molecular analysis is typically purified using commercial DNA extraction kits. Limitations of these kits include relatively high cost, long examination times, and low DNA yields because of the small body size of pseudoscorpions. Here, we propose a new DNA extraction protocol using isolated single pseudoscorpion appendage. This protocol has several advantages over commercial kits: DNA extraction can be performed rapidly and at a low cost, and the specimens can be used for molecular analysis and then further processed for slide preparation and morphological analysis. In this study, we isolated total genomic DNA from individual pedipalps of two species of small-sized pseudoscorpions belonging to two different suborders, Mundochthonius japonicus (Epiocheirata) and Microbisium pygmaeum (Iocheirata). The results indicate that this new protocol could be used to determine the partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA COI region.