The histone variant macroH2A has been found to play important regulatory roles in genomic processes, especially in regulating transcriptomes. However, whether macroH2A nucleosomes are retained on mitotic chromosomes to enable maintenance of cell-specific transcriptomes is not known. Here, examining mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3) with native chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (nChIP-seq), we show that the overwhelming majority (~90%) of macroH2A1 domains identified at the G1/S stage are indeed stably retained on mitotic chromosomes. Unexpectedly though, we also find that there are a number of macroH2A domains that are specific for either mitotic or G1/S cells. Notably, more than 7,000 interphase expressed genes flanked by macroH2A1 domains are loaded with macroH2A1 nucleosomes on the mitotic chromosome to form extended domains. Overall, these results reveal that, while the majority of macroH2A1 domains are indeed faithfully transmitted through the mitotic chromosomes, there is a previously unknown cell-cycle dependent exchange of macroH2A1 nucleosomes at numerous genomic loci, indicating the existence of molecular machineries for this dynamically regulated process. We anticipate that these findings will prove to be essential for the integrity of mitotic progression and the maintenance of cellular identity.
Diet and circadian rhythms have been found to have a profound impact on health, disease, and aging. Skipping breakfast, eating late, and overeating have adverse effects on the body's metabolism and increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Disturbance of circadian rhythms has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other diseases. Abnormal deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins in the brain and impaired synaptic function are linked to cognitive dysfunction. A restrictive diet following the circadian rhythm can affect the metabolism of lipids, glucose, and amino acids such as branched chain amino acids and cysteine. These metabolic changes contribute to autophagy through molecular mechanisms such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), rapamycin (mTOR), D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Autophagy, in turn, promotes the removal of abnormally deposited proteins and damaged organelles and improves cognitive function, ultimately prolonging lifespan. In addition, a diet restricted to the circadian rhythm induces increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the forebrain region, regulating autophagy and increasing synaptic plasticity, thus enhancing cognitive function. Consequently, circadian rhythm-restricted diets could serve as a promising non-pharmacological treatment for preventing and improving cognitive dysfunction and prolonging lifespan.
Studies have found that intermittent fasting (IF) can prevent diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and neuropathy, while in humans it has helped to alleviate metabolic syndrome, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and many other disorders. IF involves a series of coordinated metabolic and hormonal changes to maintain the organism's metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis. More importantly, IF can activate hepatic autophagy, which is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis and energy balance, quality control, cell and tissue remodeling, and defense against extracellular damage and pathogens. IF affects hepatic autophagy through multiple interacting pathways and molecular mechanisms, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), silent mating-type information regulatory 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), as well as signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms such as glucagon and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). These pathways can stimulate the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), play a cytoprotective role, downregulate the expression of aging-related molecules, and prevent the development of steatosis-associated liver tumors. By influencing the metabolism of energy and oxygen radicals as well as cellular stress response systems, IF protects hepatocytes from genetic and environmental factors. By activating hepatic autophagy, IF has a potential role in treating a variety of liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A better understanding of the effects of IF on liver autophagy may lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of liver disease.
Solitary intrahepatic biliary cyst (SIBC) is a rare disease, and due to the lack of adequate understanding of it, SIBC is often misdiagnosed as simple liver cyst (SLC), which in turn affects the therapeutic effect. In order to arouse more attention to SIBC, combined with clinical experience in our center, this study specifically screened 3 representative cases of SIBC, and conducted a comprehensive retrospective analysis of their clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment process. Combined with the relevant literature, the diagnosis and treatment process of SIBC is widely discussed.
Hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma are the most common benign solid liver tumors. However, their surgical indications have been the subject of debate. Minimally invasive liver resection reduces the cost of surgery and may lead to overtreatment of benign liver tumors. Recently, there has been a growing understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of these tumors. Great progress has also been made in imaging. The use of MRI and contrast agents has improved the accuracy of non-invasive diagnosis of these tumors, and especially in the identification of specific molecular subtypes of liver adenoma. These factors have resulted in alterations of surgical indications for these tumors. This article examines recent literature and it discusses the surgical indications for hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma while summarizing modifications in clinical management.