Alternative splicing is a post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of gene expression. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family proteins were recently found to be involved in RNA editing in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the tissue-specific expression and alternative splicing of PPR family genes and their effects on protein structure and functionality. Of the 27 PPR genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we selected six PPR genes of the P subfamily that are likely alternatively spliced, which were confirmed by sequencing. Four of these genes show intron retention, and the two remaining genes have 3' alternative-splicing sites. Alternative-splicing events occurred in the coding regions of three genes and in the 3' UTRs of the three remaining genes. We also identified five previously unannotated alternatively spliced isoforms of these PPR genes, which were confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Among these, three contain 3' alternative-splicing sites, one contains a 5' alternative-splicing site, and the remaining gene contains a 3'-5' alternative-splicing site. The new isoforms of two genes affect protein structure, and three other alternative-splicing sites are located in 3' UTRs. These findings suggest that tissue-specific expression of different alternatively spliced transcripts occurs in Arabidopsis, even at different developmental stages.
The past decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of molecularly targeted therapies. One class of agents includes the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs), which afford patients longer progression-free survival (PFS) times, especially among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). Certain adverse effects, particularly skin toxicity, are mainly manifested as rash, xerosis, pruritus, nails changes, hair changes and mucositis. Previous studies reported the adverse events occurred based on the cutaneous inflammation reaction. Treatment recommended glucocorticoids and antibiotics. It is suggested that skin toxicity is an important issue because it usually affects patients' quality of life (QoL) and still causes dose reduction or discontinuation of targeted therapies. For these reasons, more and more oncologists and dermatologists recognize the importance of recognition and management of skin toxicities with the expansion in availability of EGFRIs. In this review, we conducted a systematic review of recent data to examine the types and frequencies of dermatologic toxicities associated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies in NSCLC and mCRC. In addition, we would like to explore the management and treatment options currently used by clinicians based on the possible mechanism.
Neural networks have garnered attention over the past few years. A neural network is a typical model of machine learning that is used to identify visual patterns. Neural networks are used to solve a wide variety of problems, including image recognition problems and time series prediction problems. In addition, neural networks have been applied to medicine over the past few years. This paper classifies the ways in which neural networks have been applied to medicine based on the type of data used to train those networks. Applications of neural networks to medicine can be categorized two types: automated diagnosis and physician aids. Considering the number of patients per physician, neural networks could be used to diagnose diseases related to the vascular system, heart, brain, spinal column, head, neck, and tumors/cancer in three fields: vascular and interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and neuroradiology. Lastly, this paper also considers areas of medicine where neural networks can be effectively applied in the future.