Great achievements have been made in human cancer research, but most of this research is focused on conditions at the microscopic rather than the systemic level. Recent studies have increasingly cited the ancient Chinese theory of yin-yang in an effort to expand beyond the microscopic level. Various cancer-associated genes and proteins such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, p53, c-Myc, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, NF-κB, Cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cells such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and fibroblasts have been reported to regulate various types of cancers in a yin-yang manner. These studies have brought the theory of yin-yang into vogue in cancer research worldwide.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a widespread public health concern and many people are infected with HCV. HCV is one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HCV have changed the course of chronic HCV infection, however, making it a curable disease. DAA treatment may be initiated before or after liver transplantation. In the present review, we present the available data on DAA treatment of HCV in liver transplant recipients.
We developed electrolyzed water (EW) using carbon electrodes and investigated the ability of the developed EW to inhibit the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We observed that EW-containing media inhibited HeLa cell proliferation. Many very small black dots were produced in EW and these were associated with the inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. Furthermore, the very small black dots that could inhibit cell proliferation were produced only at pH 3 to 3.5 of EW. Additional experiments showed that this inhibition of proliferation is reversible. These results suggest that the effect of EW on HeLa cells is cytostatic and not cytotoxic. Thus, our results indicate that the EW developed in this study may be used to inhibit cell proliretation.
This study shed light on the amount and structure of utilization and medical expenses on Shanghai permanent residents based on big data, simulated lifetime medical expenses through combining of expenses data and life table model, and explored the dynamic pattern of aging on medical expenditures. 5 years were taken as the class interval, the study collected and did the descriptive analysis on the medical services utilization and medical expenses information for all ages of Shanghai permanent residents in 2015, simulated lifetime medical expenses by using current life table and cross-section expenditure data. The results showed that in 2015, outpatient and emergency visits per capita in the elderly group (aged 60 and over) was 4.1 and 4.5 times higher than the childhood group (aged 1-14), and the youth and adult group (aged 15-59); hospitalization per capita in the elderly group was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher than the childhood group, and the youth and adult group. People survived in the 60-64 years group, their expected whole medical expenses (105,447 purchasing power parity Dollar) in the rest of their lives accounted for 75.6% of their lifetime. A similar study in Michigan, US showed that the expenses of the population aged 65 and over accounted for 1/2 of lifetime medical expenses, which is much lower than Shanghai. The medical expenses of the advanced elderly group (aged 80 and over) accounted for 38.8% of their lifetime expenses, including 38.2% in outpatient and emergency, and 39.5% in hospitalization, which was slightly higher than outpatient and emergency. There is room to economize in medical expenditures of the elderly people in Shanghai, especially controlling hospitalization expenses is the key to saving medical expenses of elderly people aged over 80 and over.
By the end of 2014, China had an elderly population age 60 or over totaling 212 million; this group accounted for 15.5% of the country's total population of 1.37 billion, which means that China has passed the threshold for an aging population. As China's population ages and the disease spectrum changes, nursing services for the elderly must be expanded. Given differences in the health status, financial situation, and family composition of each elderly person, modern society is tending towards individual nursing care for the elderly. Adapting to the changing composition of society by age will present new challenges.