Inhibitors in food samples may be responsible for the difficulty in detecting Norovirus (NV) by PCR. To detect NV more efficiently, we employed additional bacterial treatment process before RNA extraction in the standard protocol. Ten strains of bacteria were examined with the modified method using oyster samples, and Proteus vulgaris was found to be the most effective. By quantification of NV RNAs using real-time PCR, recovery rates of NVs (GI/8 or GII/4) added to oyster suspensions using the modified method were compared with those recovered using the standard method. Recovery rates using the modified method with P. vulgaris were 45.9% for GI/8 and 21.3% for GII/4, while those using the standard method were 0.2% for GI/8 and GII/4.
Aflatoxin (AF), a strong carcinogenic mycotoxin, is often detected in food imports. Generally, it is considered that AF contamination occurs in the country of origin. However, the possibility of the occurrence of AF during transportation to Japan from the countries of origin shipping containers is incontrovertible. Therefore, the possibility of AF occurring during the transportation of food imports in shipping containers was examined. Data on the temperature and humidity in dry containers on 12 of transportation routes from foreign countries to Japan were collected, and the change in temperature was simplified. Foods with 3 levels of water activity were prepared by adding water to sterilized food. The foods were incubated under the simplified transportation temperature conditions after inoculation with AF-producing fungi. AF was not produced in food with water activity (Aw) up to 0.83 but a high level of AF production was found in the food with Aw 0.99.
Systematic analysis of 8 artificial sweeteners, namely, saccharin aspartame sucralose acesulfame K neotame cyclamate (CY) dulcin (DU) and alitame, was partially improved. Chopped or homogenized samples were packed into cellulose tubing with 0.01mol/L hydrochloric acid containing 10% sodium chloride, and dialyzed against 0.01mol/L hydrochloric acid for 24-48 hours. The dialyzate was cleaned up using a solid-phase extraction method with an Oasis HLB cartridge for CY and a Sep-Pak Vac C18 cartridge for DU. The average recovery of CY and DU from 9 types of foods spiked with 200μg/g was above 96%. Their detection limits were 5μg/g in samples. Furthermore, CY and DU were both successfully identified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.
We tested of allergic substances (wheat) in a processed food on the market without the indication of having used wheat in 2005 fiscal year and 2006 fiscal year. We detected over 10μg/g of wheat protein from eight samples of 73 samples in domestic products and imported products by ELISA screening method. However, on processed food, such as a fried snack, a retort-pouched food and a fermented food, DNA of ingredients in them had damaged by heat, pressure and fermentation, we couldn’t detect the wheat DNA by using notified PCR method. Then, we tried to develop DNA extraction method and modified PCR method. Therefore wheat DNA in processed food was able to be detected by improved method.
An analysis method to detect chloral hydrate in unapproved/unpermitted drugs was developed. In the qualitative method, chloral hydrate was extracted with dichloromethane and then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. The reagent of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine was used for staining in with thin layer chromatography. In the quantitative method, chloral hydrate was extracted with diisopropyl ether and then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an internal standard 1,2,3-trichloropropane. A total of 5.7w/w% of chloral hydrate was detected from the liquid sample displayed to used the Spanish fly as raw material.
Analytical results of UV absorbents in 891 cosmetics collected at our center from April 2004 to March 2008 were sorted according to the type of cosmetics and ingredients. UV absorbents were detected in 133 samples. 2-Ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate (EMC) was detected most frequently (89 samples), followed by 4-tert-butyl-4&rsquo:-methoxydibenzoyl-methane (BMB) (26 samples), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) (26 samples). In sunscreen, UV absorbents were detected frequently, in 36 of 50 samples. In these samples, EMC was mainly observed, and its content was 1?10%. Thirteen of 18 samples of perfume and eau de cologne contained various ingredients besides BMB, and the content was 1% or less. There were a number of samples in which several UV absorbents were detected.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government enacted an ordinance on illegal drug abuse prevention. As a result, plant-derived drugs, rather than chemical drugs, have been dominating the market. Extract of commercially distributed Hawaiian wood rose seed containing lysergic acid alkaloids was administered by gavage to mice, and the neuro-behavior of these animals was observed using the screening method that has been developed in our laboratory. In the high dose group, head twitching, sedation, increased sound response, and reinforcement of pain response and tendon reflex were observed. These results suggest that an alteration in the serotonin level in the brain is involved in these changes.
Epoxy resin is used to repair old water distribution pipes. To cure the resin, 4,4’-methylendianiline (MDA), an aromatic amine, is used as a hardener. When the drying time during repairs is too short, MDA and the reaction products of MDA and chlorine may dissolve into tap water. Therefore, we investigated chemicals that were produced by the reaction of MDA or 4,4’-ethylendianiline (EDA), a hardener similar to MDA, and residual chlorine, and we also tried to establish a method for the examination of those chemicals in tap water. We found that both MDA and EDA could produce various chemicals by reaction with residual chlorine at various concentrations. The chemicals identified with a molar ratio of 3 to 1,000 to residual chlorine and either MDA or EDA were p-benzoquinone, 2,4-dichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline. P-aminobenzyl chloride was also identified as a possible reaction chemical produced maximally at the molar ratio of 5. We conclude that detection of these chemicals in tap water is an effective method of confirming the dissolution of MDA and EDA.
The questionnaire survey was executed to 232 food factories in Tokyo to understand the condition of testing facility, protocol, manuals, accuracy, and quality control in January, 2008. The collection rate was 62.5%. Facilities where the inspection was executed for microorganism inspection were 96% of food factories, and 53% of food factories executed physics and chemistry inspections. Facilities where the inspection was executed only by the simple examination in the microorganism inspection were only four facilities. It was clarified that 65.2% of food manufacturers prepared and maintained the manuals for the inspection, and 26.1% food manufacturers answered partially preparation. Preparation situation of the manuals for the inspection was almost excellent. On the other hand, the execution condition of the accuracy control of the inspection was about 30% or less whole. The acknowledgment level of the system that guaranteed the inspection accuracy was thought to be low because it was answered that half of nearby food manufacturers did not know proper management which regulated under Good Laboratory Practice of the food inspection field.
We, the member of Office of Quality Assurance, inspected 43 facilities of Tokyo Metropolitan Government for GLP based on the Food Sanitation Law. We requested 6 facilities to improve the examinations related to food sanitation. Since the documents on examinations included any errors, SOPs have not already been made completely, and so on.
We analyze the influence of demographic structure on suicide. The number of births in the 1880s, 1926-34, 1947-49 and 1971-74 are greater than those of neighboring generations. The suicide rates of these generations are also higher than those of neighboring generations in Japan. This phenomenon (the suicide rates of large-population generations being higher than those of small-population generations) has also been observed in Finland, the United States, and other advanced nations, but the age dependency of suicide varies from country to country. When the large population generation approaches a specific age, the number of suicides is expected to increase very rapidly. It is thus important to consider demographic structure to develop effective suicide prevention plans.
We conducted the questionnaire survey on the current situation of integrated chemicals management in Japanese corporations by using the developed evaluation indicators. The surveys have been conducted from 2003 annually. The evaluation indicators are the matrix of three horizontal axes and four longitudinal axes. The horizontal axes are the standards to evaluate the activities regarding integrated chemicals management. These evaluation axes were named SCP axes, i.e. Science axis (evaluation of science basis), Capacity axis (evaluation of ability of personnel and organization), and Performance axis (achievement and situation of cooperation with clients, and/or information disclosure to society). The longitudinal axes are the evaluation elements, i.e. hazard assessment, exposure assessment, risk assessment and risk management. The questionnaire survey was conducted by using concrete questions and choices set in each interaction of this matrix. In 2008 we obtained the valid responses from 244 corporations. The overall tendency of 2008 was almost as same as past survey results. However, in the representative three industry categories (Rubber and Chemicals, Electric Appliances and Machinery) more than half of company increased the budget and human resources in relation to chemicals management compared to five year ago. It is concluded that many companies are promoting chemicals management.