X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by variations in arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2). Some patients show partial resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP). A 19-month-old Japanese boy presented with polydipsia since infancy. His mother had a history of polydipsia during pregnancy, and his maternal granduncle also had polydipsia. Intermediate urine osmolality and markedly high plasma AVP levels were observed in the water deprivation test. Subsequent pitressin administration caused no further elevation in urine osmolality. We diagnosed the patient with partial NDI, initiated therapy with hydrochlorothiazide, and placed him on a low-sodium diet. Although his urine volume decreased by 20–30% after the initiation of therapy, progressive hydronephrosis and growth retardation developed 2 years later. We investigated his genetic background by multiplex targeted sequencing of genes associated with inherited renal diseases, including AVPR2 and aquaporin-2 (AQP2). We identified a hemizygous missense variant in AVPR2 NM_000054:c.371A>G,p.(Tyr124Cys) in the boy and a heterozygous variant in the mother at the same locus. Distinguishing partial NDI from primary polydipsia is difficult because of its mild symptoms. Markedly elevated plasma AVP levels with intermediate urine osmolality may suggest partial NDI, and genetic analysis can be useful for such patients.
Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) are non-neoplastic epithelial lesions in the sellar or suprasellar regions. RCCs are usually asymptomatic; however, some patients experience headaches, visual disturbances, and endocrine disorders. The best treatment for associated endocrinopathy remains elusive. We aimed to investigate the clinical course, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and response to therapy in 10 pediatric patients with RCCs and endocrinopathy. Growth impairment and precocious puberty were observed to be prevalent. One patient with suprasellar extension of RCC underwent surgery, while the others were treated medically. Of the nine patients, seven patients showed stable cyst size, while two patients displayed reduction in cyst size. Hormone replacement and gonadotropin suppression therapy were found to be effective. Imaging and endocrine follow-ups are warranted because of the potential for changes in the cyst size and hormonal changes.
We observed trends in the height of children aged 3 to 6 in Japan using data from the National Growth Survey on Preschool Children in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. Average standard deviation (SD) scores of height decreased from 0.39 (SD 1.02) in 1990 (n = 3,684) to 0.37 (SD 1.05) in 2000 (n = 2,981) and 0.33 (SD 1.07) in 2010 (n = 2,027). Mothers of children in later waves were taller, older, and more likely to be primiparous; children in later waves had shorter gestational age, lower birth weight, and were less likely to have been fed less with formula or solid foods before 6 mo. The only factor that consistently contributed to a reduction in children’s height for both 1990–2000 and 2000–2010 was a reduction in birthweight SD score (indirect effect on height –1.5 [95% CI: –1.9, –1.1] mm for 1990–2000 and –1.2 [95% CI: –1.8, –0.8] mm for 2000–2010). Factors that contributed, although not significantly or consistently between the two periods, were changes in pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, gestational age, BMI at birth, and use of formula and solid foods before 6 mo. Secular increases in maternal age, height, and primiparity contributed to increasing children’s height.
We aimed to determine the prevalence of early puberty in girls with premature pubarche and analyze the time interval between their pubarche and succeeding thelarche. This study included 60 female children with premature pubarche. We retrospectively collected clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings from all participants. We investigated the time interval between pubarche and thelarche in cases wherein premature pubarche was followed by thelarche. The mean age at onset of pubarche was 6.93 ± 0.79 yr old. Among the participants, 16.7% were preterm, 20% were small for gestational age (SGA), and 55% were overweight or obese. The mean time interval between pubarche and thelarche was 11.20 ± 7.41 mo. The mean serum DHEA-S level was higher in the preterm group (p = 0.016), and DHEA-S levels were generally higher in the SGA group (p = 0.004). This study documented the presence of being overweight or obese and having more advanced growth than their genetic potential in half of the patients who had premature pubarche. In addition to these identified risk factors, obesity-independent DHEA-S levels were observed to be higher in patients who had early puberty with the first six months of their follow-up considered to be the most critical time in predicting early puberty.
The health-related quality of life is reduced in patients with achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH); however, the detailed inconveniences in the daily living and individual adaptations have not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the inconvenience and adaptation in patients with ACH/HCH. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with ACH/HCH aged 20 yr or older. Questionnaires were sent to 567 patients (described 86) with a medical history at the co-authors’ institutions or who were registered at the patients’ association with ACH in Japan. The questionnaire included a free description format for the inconveniences and adaptations in daily living; a content analysis was performed. The recorded inconveniences included 148 physical, 84 mental, and 52 social problems. Patients who underwent spine surgery had significantly more recorded physical problems than those who did not (p < 0.05). Pain and numbness were significantly higher in patients aged ≥ 50 yr (p < 0.05). The 160 and 1 adaptations were for physical and social problems, respectively. No patient adaptation was found for mental health problems. Individual adaptations by ACH/HCH patients can improve only some aspects of physical and social problems. Multilateral social support is needed to resolve patients’ issues.
In Japan, a pituitary-extracted human GH (phGH), Crescormon®, was approved for the treatment of pituitary dwarfism in 1975. The Study Group of Pituitary Dysfunction was organized by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) in 1973 and prepared the “Diagnostic Handbook: Pituitary Dwarfism” guidelines in 1974. Eligibility assessments for phGH treatment were conducted by the research group on pituitary dwarfism (later the Foundation for Growth Science [FGS] GH Treatment Eligibility Assessment Committee); however, there were 200–300 patients on the waiting list. GH treatment has been financially supported by the Grant-in-Aid Program for Chronic Diseases in Childhood, MHW, since 1974. In 1984, phGH was discontinued in the United States due to reports of the onset of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in patients treated with phGH. Japan approved the use of methionyl hGH in 1986 and recombinant hGH in 1988. As a result, the phGH disappeared from the market. The role of the Eligibility Assessment Committee of the FGS shifted to the provision of second opinions about diagnoses and treatment appropriateness. Since then, the indications for GH treatment of pediatric growth disorders have expanded to include other pediatric growth disorders such as Turner syndrome, achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia, etc.
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. This was a prospective, case-control study conducted in Izmir, Turkey. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between COVID-19 and new-onset T1DM. We included pediatric patients (aged 6 mo–18 yr) with new-onset type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic, between April 2020 and January 2021. Polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose COVID-19 after hospital admission. An enzyme-linked immunoassay for IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was performed after the diagnosis was confirmed. In the control group, the blood antibody test was conducted as close as possible to the time of the T1DM patient referral. A total of 118 participants were included in the study, comprising 57 (48%) patients with new-onset T1DM and 61 (52%) healthy controls. Of the 57 patients, 36 (63.2%) presented with DKA, 17 (29.7%) with diabetic ketosis, and four (7%) incidentally. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody test was positive in five (8.7%) patients with T1DM and six (10%) controls. The rate of positivity did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.901). It was not possible to demonstrate a clear association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and new-onset T1DM. Whether SARS-CoV-2 increases susceptibility to diabetes by triggering islet cell autoimmunity and affects the timing of overt diabetes in patients with existing autoimmunity should be studied in large cohorts.