MatML plays an important role in materials data applications while structure-aware query techniques (e.g., XPath and XQuery) are used to search the content of MatML. However, both XPath and XQuery cannot efficiently retrieve sets of MatML on a conceptual level. In this paper, we propose an approach to transform MatML-based materials data into an OWL ontology. As such, materials data can then be explored in a more semantic way. The proposed method formally defines a set of rules to extract the corresponding OWL ontology (named MatOWL) from a given MatML schema. The instance transformation from MatML to MatOWL is implemented with the help of an intermediate object model. The algorithm for instance transformation is also given. Further, MatOWL can be mapped to other ontologies with logic rules to provide more semantic context for domain experts, and more materials knowledge can be obtained by reasoning on the OWL ontology. An experimental prototype demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
It is common practice that in teams working in the field of natural sciences all group members manage their primary data in highly individual systems. The consequence of this is that the data are usually lost shortly after the scientific results have been published or that they lose part of their value, as significant background information can no longer be found. To solve this problem in a simple way, we present a basic procedure that allows us to uniquely identify scientific data and their history at any time. We describe which requirements such a procedure has to meet (proper documentation, unique identification, and easy backtracking of the individual operations) and discuss on the basis of a timestamp approach how such a procedure can be integrated smoothly into the traditional scientific work process and the existing IT infrastructure of a team. It does this by using established processes and developing them into a systematic information management covering both electronic and analogue media.
In the Canadian research environment, it is difficult for researchers to effectively discover, access, and use data sets, except for those that are the most well known. Several recent reports have discussed the issues around "lost" data sets: those which are intended to be shared but cannot be identified and utilized effectively because of insufficient associated metadata. Both problems are approaching critical levels in Canada and internationally, a situation that is unacceptable because these data sets are often generated as a result of public funding. Solutions may involve providing support and training for researchers on how they can best collect and manage their data sets or developing gateways to scientific data sets. NRC-CISTI is the largest comprehensive source of scientific, technical, and medical information in North America, with a mandate to serve as Canada's national science library. Through its publishing arm, NRC Research Press, it is also Canada's foremost scientific publisher. NRC-CISTI is an organization with demonstrated expertise in metadata management, which, until recently, focused primarily on library and publishing contexts. However in November 2007, it formally committed to expand its agenda to address the management of scientific research data and the related critical needs of the research community. This paper presents NRC-CISTI's activities in this area. NRC-CISTI has begun by hosting forums in which the critical players (including the granting agencies) mapped out targets and approaches. It has strengthened its own internal expertise regarding metadata and management of scientific data sets. Finally, NRC-CISTI is developing a gateway Web site which will provide access to Canadian scientific data sets and related metadata, tools, educational resources, and other informative and collaborative tools urgently needed by Canadian and international researchers. NRC-CISTI is the sponsoring body for the Canadian National Committee for CODATA and is committed to promoting and supporting CNC/CODATA's initiatives.
We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system), a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) (http://cats.sao.ru) allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.
Independent of established data centers, and partly for my own research, since 1989 I have been collecting the tabular data from over 2600 articles concerned with radio sources and extragalactic objects in general. Optical character recognition (OCR) was used to recover tables from 740 papers. Tables from only 41 percent of the 2600 articles are available in the CDS or CATS catalog collections, and only slightly better coverage is estimated for the NED database. This fraction is not better for articles published electronically since 2001. Both object databases (NED, SIMBAD, LEDA) as well as catalog browsers (VizieR, CATS) need to be consulted to obtain the most complete information on astronomical objects. More human resources at the data centers and better collaboration between authors, referees, editors, publishers, and data centers are required to improve data coverage and accessibility. The current efforts within the Virtual Observatory (VO) project, to provide retrieval and analysis tools for different types of published and archival data stored at various sites, should be balanced by an equal effort to recover and include large amounts of published data not currently available in this way.
The explosion of non-structured materials science data makes it urgent for materials researchers to resolve the problem of how to effectively share this information. Materials science image data is an important class of non-structured data. This paper proposes a semantic annotation method to resolve the problem of materials science image data sharing. This method is implemented by a four-layer architecture, which includes ontology building, semantic annotation, reasoning service, and application. We take metallographic image data as an example and build a metallographic image OWL-ontology. Users can accomplish semantic annotation of metallographic image according to the ontology. Reasoning service is provided in a data sharing application to demonstrate the effective sharing of materials science image data through adding semantic annotation.
Effective interatomic potentials are frequently utilized for large-scale simulations of materials. In this work, we generate an effective interatomic potential, with Niobium as an example, using the force-matching method derived from a material database which is created by the first-principle molecular dynamics. It is found that the potentials constructed in the present work are more transferable than other existing potential models. We further discuss how the first-principles material database should be organized for generation of additional potential.
The prediction of product acceptability is often an additive effect of individual fuzzy impressions developed by a consumer on certain underlying attributes characteristic of the product. In this paper, we present the development of a data-driven fuzzy-rule-based approach for predicting the overall sensory acceptability of food products, in this case composite cassava-wheat bread. The model was formulated using the Takagi-Sugeno and Kang (TSK) fuzzy modeling approach. Experiments with the model derived from sampled data were simulated on Windows 2000XP running on Intel 2Gh environment. The fuzzy membership function for the sensory scores is implemented in MATLAB 6.0 using the fuzzy logic toolkit, and weights of each linguistic attribute were obtained using a Correlation Coefficient formula. The results obtained are compared to those of human judgments. Overall assessments suggest that, if implemented, this approach will facilitate a better acceptability of cassava bread as well as nutritionally improved food.
Retrieval systems for 3D objects are required because 3D databases used around the web are growing. In this paper, we propose a visual similarity based search engine for 3D objects. The system is based on a new representation of 3D objects given by a 3D closed curve that captures all information about the surface of the 3D object. We propose a new 3D descriptor, which is a combination of three signatures of this new representation, and we implement it in our interactive web based search engine. Our method is compared to some state of the art methods, tested using the Princeton-Shape Benchmark as a large database of 3D objects. The experimental results show that the enhanced curve analysis descriptor performs well.
Evaluation of clustering results (or cluster validation) is an important and necessary step in cluster analysis, but it is often time-consuming and complicated work. We present a visual cluster validation tool, the Cluster Validity Analysis Platform (CVAP), to facilitate cluster validation. The CVAP provides necessary methods (e.g., many validity indices, several clustering algorithms and procedures) and an analysis environment for clustering, evaluation of clustering results, estimation of the number of clusters, and performance comparison among different clustering algorithms. It can help users accomplish their clustering tasks faster and easier and help achieve good clustering quality when there is little prior knowledge about the cluster structure of a data set.
Finding out how many parameters are necessary to explain and describe complex and various phenomena of nature has been a challenge in modern physics. This paper introduces a new formal system of units, which maintain compatibility with SI units, to express all seven SI base units by dimensionless numbers with acceptable uncertainties and to establish the number one as the fundamental parameter of everything. All seven SI base units are converted successfully into the unified dimensionless numerical values via normalization of s, c, h, k, e/me, NA, and b by unity (1). In the proposed system of units, even the unlike-dimensioned physical quantities can be convertible and hence added, subtracted, or compared to one another. It is very simple and easy to analyze and validate physical equations by substituting every unit with the corresponding number. Furthermore, it is expected to find new relationships among unlike-dimensioned physical quantities, which is extremely difficult or even impossible in SI units.
This paper reports the recent progress on mud volcanism data accumulation in the case of the Gulf of Cadiz area. The discovery of giant mud volcanoes, deep coral reefs, and gas hydrates in 1999, from the Guadalquivir Diapiric Ridge to the Larache Moroccan margin, launched a dynamic expansion of new projects (GeNesis, MoundForce, HERMES) and international oceanographic campaigns (R/V Sonne, Marion-Dufresne). The present monitoring of this Ibero-Moroccan oceanic zone is in need of a comprehensive database available in one site to make online search possible from a single interface. The database would constitute a reference point for a focused full scope collection.
In a grid and distributed computing environment, data replication is an effective way to improve data accessibility and data accessing efficiency. It is also significant in developing a real-time service monitoring system for a Chinese Scientific Data Grid to guarantee the system stability and data availability. Hierarchical data replication and service monitoring methods are proposed in this paper. The hierarchical data replication method divides the network into different domains and replicates data in local domains. The nodes in a local domain are classified into hierarchies to improve data accessibility according to bandwidth and storage memory space. An extensible agent-based prototype of a hierarchical service monitoring system is presented. The status information of services in the Chinese Scientific Data Grid is collected from the grid nodes based on agent technology and then is transformed into real-time operational pictures for management needs. This paper presents frameworks of the hierarchical data replication and service monitoring methods and gives detailed resolutions. Simulation analyses have demonstrated improved data accessing efficiency and verified the effectiveness of the methods at the same time.
Attribute reduction aims to reduce the dimensionality of large scale data without losing useful information and is an important topic of knowledge discovery, data clustering, and classification. In this paper, we aim to solve the current problem that a continuous attribute in a clustering or classification algorithm must be made discrete. We propose a new algorithm of data reduction based on a correlation model with data discretization. It deals with selection of continuous attributes from a very large set of attributes. The proposed algorithm is an extended version of the Fast Correlation-based filter algorithm and is named FCBF+. The FCBF+ algorithm performs the discretization of continuous attributes in an efficient manner. Then it selects the relevant attributes from a very large set of attributes. Performance evaluation is done on clustering accuracy for all the features, and a reduced set of features is obtained using FCBF+. It is found that the proposed FCBF+ algorithm improves the clustering accuracy of various clustering algorithms.
Preserving digital objects requires preservation of not only their bit-level representation but also their intelligibility. To this end a digital object should be associated with metadata appropriate for interpreting that object; such metadata are often referred as representation information. Even such metadata may not be intelligible, however, so we may have to associate them with extra metadata, and so on. This paper approaches this problem by introducing an abstract model comprising modules and dependencies. Community knowledge is formalized over the same model by introducing the notion of profile. This notion is then exploited for deciding representation information adequacy (during input) and intelligibility (during output). Subsequently some general dependency management services for identifying and filling intelligibility gaps during input and output are described and analysed. Finally a prototype system based on these ideas is described.
The Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) is the digitized version of the famous Markarian Survey. It is the largest low-dispersion spectroscopic survey of the sky, covering 17,000 square degrees at galactic latitudes |b|>15. DFBS provides images and extracted spectra for all objects present in the FBS plates. Programs were developed to compute astrometric solution, extract spectra, and apply wavelength and photometric calibration for objects. A DFBS database and catalog has been assembled containing data for nearly 20,000,000 objects. A classification scheme for the DFBS spectra is being developed. The Armenian Virtual Observatory is based on the DFBS database and other large-area surveys and catalogue data.
A geoportal is a web site that presents an entry point to geo-products (including geo-data) on the web. Despite their importance in (spatial) data infrastructures, literature suggest stagnating or even declining trends in visitor numbers. In this paper relevant ideas and techniques for improving performance are derived from internet marketing literature. We tested the extent to which these ideas are already applied in practice through a survey among 48 geoportals worldwide. Results show in many cases positive correlation with trends in visitor numbers. The ideas can be useful for geoportal managers developing their marketing strategy.
This paper suggests a ratio-cum-product estimator of finite population mean using a correlation coefficient between study variate and auxiliary variate in stratified random sampling. Bias and mean squared expressions of the suggested estimator are derived and compared with combined ratio estimator and several other estimators considered by Kadilar and Cingi (2003). An empirical study is also carried out to examine the performance of the proposed estimator.
The representation of information and its exchange in a communication requires the use of a common information model to define the semantics and syntax of the representation and a common dictionary to define the meaning of the data items. These fundamental concepts are the basis of the new standard ISO 10303-235: 'Engineering properties for product design and verification' for the computer representation and exchange of material and any other engineering properties of a product and to provide an audit trail for the derivation of the property value. A related dictionary conforming to ISO 13584 can define testing methods and their properties and enable the information model to be used for any property of any product.
Based on an explorative analysis of the definitions of a data scientist and a community of data scientists as well, this paper points out that with the development of data science and data scientists, the promotion by CODATA and interested partners, the support and efforts of more and more countries and regions, and the drive of social need, building a community of data scientists is full of potentialities and hopes though faced with obstacles and challenges.
This paper presents a query translation mechanism between heterogeneous peers in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems (PDSSs). A PDSS combines a database management system with P2P functionalities. The local databases on peers are called peer databases. In a PDSS, each peer chooses its own data model and schema and maintains data independently without any global coordinator. One of the problems in such a system is translating queries between peers, taking into account both the schema and data heterogeneity. Query translation is the problem of rewriting a query posed in terms of one peer schema to a query in terms of another peer schema. This paper proposes a query translation mechanism between peers where peers are acquainted in data sharing systems through data-level mappings for sharing data.
Bayes estimates of the unknown parameter and the reliability function for the generalized exponential model are derived. Bayes estimates are obtained under various losses such as the squared error, the absolute error, the squared log error, and the entropy loss functions. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to compare the Bayes estimates and the maximum likelihood estimates of the unknown parameter and the reliability function.
The past two decades have seen the development of effective ways to acquire, store, and exchange data. This technology requires adoption of community-developed standards for data storage and description to form a basis for sharing data, information, and services. For the 50th anniversary of IGY, scientific societies have promoted the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories. The Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) concept embraced all available and upcoming geophysical data and helped organize them into a series of virtual geophysical observatories "deployed" in cyberspace. We describe the essential features of eGY and how it fits into a 21st century vision of informatics.
In this paper, we present an information retrieval system based on the concept of fuzzy logic to relate vague and uncertain objects with un-sharp boundaries. The simple but comprehensive user interface of the system permits the entering of uncertain specifications in query forms. The system was modelled and simulated in a Matlab environment; its implementation was carried out using Borland C++ Builder. The result of the performance measure of the system using precision and recall rates is encouraging. Similarly, the smaller amount of more precise information retrieved by the system will positively impact the response time perceived by the users.
In the present paper, a class of probability density functions is considered, and the properties of the Bayes estimator and the Bayes Shrinkage estimator of the parameters are studied. The loss functions used are asymmetric loss and squared error loss under different prior distributions. A Bayes estimate of Reliability function is also given.
In this paper the authors underline the increasing importance of Chinese scientific information. They compare the results of a request launched on Western and Chinese databases concerning Chinese scientific paper publication. Although Chinese scientists are having more and more visibility in international scientific journals, their publications in English are far fewer than those in Chinese. The difference is so drastic that it emphasizes the need for westerners (researchers and observers) to access and master the use of Chinese sources of information. The aim of this paper is to define the specificity of Chinese scientific information and also to present some primary results concerning the automatic analysis of Chinese writing. Our method uses a specific core language close to the point of view of the expert and his or her knowledge that will permit accurate information retrieval from a huge quantity of documents.
"Proceedings of the International Symposium: Fifty Years after IGY - Modern Information Technologies and Earth and Solar Sciences -" (Eds. Iyemori, T. et al.)
The International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957, a broad-based and all-encompassing effort to push the frontiers of geophysics, resulted in a tremendous increase of knowledge in space physics, Sun-Earth Connection, planetary science and the heliosphere in general. Now, 50 years later, we have the unique opportunity advance our knowledge of the global heliosphere and its interaction with planetary bodies and the interstellar medium through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) in 2007. This was an international effort to coordinate scientific research, and the deployment of scientific instrument arrays, preserve the history of the IGY, and to raise the public awareness of space physics.
The IHY Japanese National Steering Committee (STPP subcommittee of the Science Council of Japan) has been promoting and supporting (1) two satellite missions, (2) five ground-based networks, (3) public outreach, (4) international and domestic workshops, and (5) the nomination of IGY Gold Club members. In the present paper we introduce these IHY activities, briefly summarize them, and suggest several post-IHY activities.
Fifty years have passed since the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957.58, one of the most important and noble initiatives in the history of science and in the history of humanity in general. IGY became the model for subsequent international scientific initiatives in various fields of solid Earth research, including the Upper Mantle Project (1961.71), the Geodynamic Project (1971.80), the Geotraverse Project (1987.2003), and the "InterMARGINS" Project (2003). The Russian investigations as part of the Geotraverse Project and "InterMARGINS" were aimed at research into the deep structure of the continental margins of East Eurasia, which are characterized by high seismicity, volcanism, and natural cataclysms hazardous to people living there.
High frequency Doppler observations of the ionosphere began in August of 1957 in Kyoto. The number of the observation points worldwide were about 40 in 1980 and are about 20 at present. By this method the movement of the ionosphere reflection height and electron density below the height can be observed. Such variations are occurred by a wide variety of sources.
The CASSIOPE Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) is a Canadian small-satellite mission dedicated to the study of polar ion outflows and related magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes in the topside ionosphere. Scheduled for launch in 2009, it will carry eight scientific instruments, including imaging plasma and neutral particle sensors, magnetometers, dual-frequency GPS receivers, CCD cameras, a radio wave receiver and a beacon transmitter, for in-situ particle, field, and current measurements and auroral imaging and radio measurements. We present an overview of the e-POP mission, its current status and plan of observations and data distribution during the operation phase of the mission.
We summarize two projects representative of a developing movement in modern geosciences. By establishing a linkage between the developed coupling simulator and fusion prototype, we successfully incorporate geosciences with informatics, computer technologies and mathematics in the field of data processing. A challenging coupled inversion scheme is shining under such an integration.
The Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT) was constructed in 1992 at Hida Observatory in Japan to investigate the long-term variation of solar activity and explosive events. It has five solar imaging telescopes that simultaneously observe the full-disk Sun at different wavelengths around the H-alpha absorption line or in different modes. Therefore, the FMT can measure the three-dimensional velocity field of moving structures on the full solar disk. The science target of the FMT is to monitor solar flares and erupting filaments continuously all over the solar disk and to investigate correlation between the characteristics of the erupting phenomena and the geoeffectiveness of the corresponding coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We are planning to start up a new worldwide project, the Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network (CHAIN) project, as an important IHY project of our observatories. As part of this project, we are examining the possibility of installing telescopes similar to the FMT in developing countries. We have selected Peru and Algeria as the countries where the first and second overseas FMTs will be installed, and we are aiming to start operation of these FMTs by the end of 2010 before the maximum phase of solar cycle 24. To create such an international network, it will be necessary to improve the information technologies applied in our observation-system. In this paper, we explain the current status and future areas of work regarding our system.
In climate research, pressure patterns are often very important. When a climatologists need to know the days of a specific pressure pattern, for example "low pressure in Western areas of Japan and high pressure in Eastern areas of Japan (Japanese winter-type weather)," they have to visually check a huge number of surface weather charts. To overcome this problem, we propose an automatic classification system using a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method. We attempted to classify pressure patterns into two classes: "winter type" and "non-winter type". For both training datasets and test datasets, we used the JRA-25 dataset from 1981 to 2000. An experimental evaluation showed that our method obtained a greater than 0.8 F-measure. We noted that variations in results were based on differences in training datasets.
Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.
Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.
We have developed a new system using Google Earth as a data browser to visualize navigation data obtained by JAMSTEC research vessels. An XML-based language called Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is used to plot data on Google Earth. We developed a program, called a KML generator, to convert navigation data to KML. The generator enables us to quickly visualize on Google Earth the cruise track of any JAMSTEC vessel. The visualized image is a powerful tool for managing information on research cruises of various JAMSTEC vessels.
We propose to establish "#data-showcase" system to display the various geophysical data in one frame. Data-showcase is a system not to provide data but to show various types of the geophysical data in intuitable way. The newly developed Dagik, Daily geospace data in kml, is the first data-showcase system for the geospace data. It contains several types of data by ground-based and satellite measurements in addition to numerical models. We expect Dagik would make the combination and comparison of the geospace data easier, and foster new inter-disciplinary scientific researches.
A novel hypothesis is proposed that assumes piezoelectricity of the inner core as the origin of geomagnetism. By high pressure, electric charge is created on the surface and at the center of the earth. Inner core rotation yields a magnetic field. From the intensity and direction of geomagnetism at the present time, the surface charge density of the inner core is assumed to be -2x10-5C/m2. The rotation axis of the inner core is inclined by 10.4 degrees from that of the mantle. The inner core rotates with the mantle rotation. The reason for this is thought to be the eddy currents induced in the outer core of electrically conductive fluid that rotates with the mantle.
This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data Centers (WDCs) in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS) in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.
The vision of the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) is that we can achieve a major step forward in geoscience capability, knowledge, and usage throughout the world for the benefit of humanity by accelerating the adoption of modern and visionary practices such as virtual observatories for managing and sharing data and information. eGY has found that the biggest challenges to implementing the vision are educating program mangers and senior scientists on the need for modern data management techniques and providing incentives for practitioners of the new field of geoinformatics.
The Virtual Observatory (VO) for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.
The Japanese Virtual Observatory (JVO) is a web portal to various kinds of astronomical resources distributed all over the world. We have started its official operation of the JVO portal since March 2008. The JVO provides seamless access to the Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant data services, and also access to the reduced data observed with Subaru telescope and on-line data reduction system for Suprime-Cam instrument of the Subaru telescope. The system implements standards of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) to communicate with the VO components in the world.
The following PDF indicates errata for the original article entitled "Google Earth as Geoscience Data Browser Project: Development of a Tool to Convert JAMSTEC Research Vessel Navigation Data to KML" by Y Yamagishi, H Nagao, K Suzuki, H Tamura, T Hatakeyama, H Yanaka and S Tsuboi.