Objectives: This scoping review aims to examine the existing use of eye-tracking technologies being applied to measure negative mental health-related outcomes. The review was guided by the following questions: 1) What eye-tracking methods are currently in use?; and 2) What type of negative mental health-related outcomes are these methods being applied to for estimation? Results will be evaluated to determine their prospective implementation in remote work as a mental health indicator. Methods: A scoping review was conducted in order to collect data from a range of sources and evaluate many distinct research methodologies. A scoping review was chosen for this study to widely report on the research currently being conducted, rather than answer a specific question from a focused set of evidence. On May 26, 2022, a systematic search of the scientific literature was conducted to identify any eye-tracking methods that have been used to measure stress and anxiety. Results: Out of an initial 5,356 eligible articles, a total of 14 articles were included in this scoping review. Estimation outcomes also ranged from various mental health-related outcomes with the most common outcome relating to stress and fatigue. Other outcomes included sleepiness, drowsiness, arousal, frustration, hypervigilance, defensive state, peritraumatic dissociation, and anxiety. Conclusions: Preliminary results show a very promising connection between eye metrics and negative mental health-related outcomes, which are very relevant to workplace mental health as well.
Objectives: This study aimed to measure the air change per hour (ACH) in a workplace that spanned 880 m2 and had a ceiling height of 3 m. This workplace experienced clusters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases, and the study measured ACH before and after remediation. The objective was to provide a quantitative estimate of ACH in various compartments. Methods: A network of CO2 sensors was set up in the workplace. The data from the sensors were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model and dynamic time distortion to estimate the ACH in each area. Results: During the cluster outbreak, the ACH was in the range of 0.408 to 1.178/hour (p<.001), which was relatively low and likely contributed to the outbreak. Additionally, the room's ventilation was imbalanced due to partitioning. However, the ACH improved significantly from 1.835 to 2.551/hour (p<.001) by simply opening the windows and allowing natural ventilation. Conclusions: Based on the evidence that the transmission of COVID-19 was contained following the enhancement of ventilation, an ACH rate of below 2/hour was the primary factor in developing COVID-19 clusters within the facility under investigation.
Objective: The current study aimed to identify workplace stress and how stress factors differed in employees of a multinational company's subsidiaries in Japan and Vietnam. Methods: For the study, a total of 340 Japanese and 379 Vietnamese workers were included from their corresponding subsidiaries of a multinational company headquartered in Japan. The data were anonymously collected via an online pre-administered questionnaire between November 2021 and February 2022. A brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to assess the job stress. Doubly robust estimation combines a multivariate regression model with a propensity score model to identify the adjusted difference of job stress between workers in two companies. Results: Japanese employees included 292 males and 48 females, with an average age of 45.5 years. Vietnamese workers comprised 91 males and 288 females, with an average age of 36.5 years. Japanese workers reported higher level of job stress (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, p<.001), family dissatisfaction (OR 1.25, p<.001), and job dissatisfaction (OR 1.31, p<.001) than Vietnamese workers. Supervisor support had the lowest ranking in both countries (Mean 2.61; SD, 1.14 in Japan and mean 2.08; SD, 1.34 in Vietnam). The largest score differences between Japanese and Vietnamese workers were observed for family support (Diff=-1.25, p<.001) and colleague support (Diff=-1.20, p<.001). Conclusion: Although we have herein focused on the factors with the poorest perception and the highest gaps between the two countries, the managers in each country should be mindful of the other factors that appeared to be significant job stressors in their subsidiaries for further prevention of job stress.
Objectives: This study aims to elucidate a few of the challenges experienced by employees of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Japan while attempting to acquire support to strike a balance between medical treatment and work during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This descriptive qualitative study was conducted from February to March 2022 on SMEs. Semi-structured online interviews were conducted with 11 SMEs. Data collection focused on two key areas: (1) changes and challenges in medical treatment and health support at work during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) ideas and strategies for coping with the crisis. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing. Results: Thematic analysis produced five main themes: difficulties in access to health services, rapid spread in teleworking, necessity of various responses depending on the situation, anxiety, and no major changes. Conclusions: SMEs in Japan faced difficulties in implementing regular support to help employees balance between medical treatment and work during the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, the incorporation of information and communication technology to stem the spread of the COVID-19 infection has advanced to continue to work for employees with a high risk of infection.
Objectives: Specific health guidance (SHG) has served as a preventive intervention for metabolic syndrome in Japan since 2008. For SHG, health professionals guide diet and physical activity to achieve body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) reductions. Since 2013, SHG intervention using information and communication technology (ICT-based SHG) has also been available. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of ICT-based SHG, and identified factors associated with BW and WC reductions in response to this intervention. Methods: Our intervention was performed using a smartphone application with videophone guidance and message exchanges provided by health professionals. We analysed 1,994 participants. Primary outcomes included changes in BW and WC after versus before the intervention. We used multiple linear regression analyses to identify factors associated with reductions in BW and WC due to the intervention. Results: The mean ages were 49.3 (standard deviation [SD], 5.8) years for males and 50.5 (SD, 5.8) years for females. The mean BW change was -1.37 kg for both sexes. The mean WC changes were -1.05 for males and -2.05 cm for females. For males, baseline body mass index, pre-intervention action history, and the numbers of videophone communications and messages were significantly associated with larger changes in BW and WC. For females, no factors were significant for BW reduction, while baseline WC and pre-intervention action history were associated with WC reduction. Conclusions: ICT-based SHG reduces BW and WC. Videophone communication and messaging are associated with reductions in BW and WC in males. These results may help to improve the efficacy of ICT-based SHG.