Aim: Few reports have described the characteristics of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in the elderly. We investigated the background characteristics and clinical features of 14 elderly patients with HHS.
Methods: HHS was diagnosed based on a blood glucose level of >600 mg/dL and an effective plasma osmolality [2 (Na) + glu/18] of >320 mOsm/kg. For 14 cases of HHS, we investigated the medical and social backgrounds of the patients, their clinical findings, and the outcomes.
Results: The mean patient age was 83 years, and the mean body mass index was 17.8 kg/m2. Half had a history of either cerebral infarction or hip fracture. The mean duration of diabetes was 14 years, but 4 diabetes cases were newly diagnosed. There was a high prevalence of acute infection (79%) in HHS patients, especially urinary tract infection and pneumonia, with a seasonal peak in winter. Patients who had been treated with steroids, tube feeding, or both numbered 1, 2, and 1, respectively. Most HHS patients had a history of dementia. More than half of such patients were living alone or only with their spouse, and their activities of daily living showed marked deterioration. The mean blood glucose level, HbA1c, effective serum osmolality, and pH were 881 mg/dL, 10.3%, 353 mOsm/kg, and 7.39, respectively. One patient died during hospitalization, and 9 were discharged to nursing homes or other hospitals. The mean length of hospitalization was 55 days. In most cases, the insulin secretion capacity was preserved, and 9 patients were treatable with oral hypoglycemic agents alone.
Conclusions: Many cases of HHS in the elderly are associated with infection, a shortage of social support, cognitive impairment, or ADL decline. Although the survival rate in our series was high, the functional prognosis was impaired.
Aim: CONUT, a tool for "CONtrolling NUTritional status" assesses the nutritional status of a subject by taking into account their serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count. Elderly undernourished inpatients admitted to the internal medical department were divided into two groups, those who left the hospital and those who died in the hospital. The goal of this study was to analyze whether or not the CONUT score, serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count could predict the survival prognosis of elderly undernourished inpatients and to show the ratio of patients discharged with artificial hydration and nutrition (AHN).
Methods: We divided elderly undernourished inpatients into two groups, those who left the hospital (229 patients) and those who died in the hospital (363 patients), and examined the serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count within 10 days before discharge or death. Based on the degree of undernutrition as determined by CONUT, we further classified the patients 4-into four levels of nutrition status, normal, light undernutrition, moderate undernutrition and severe undernutrition. In addition, based on the serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count, the patients were also classified 4-into four levels of nutrition status, and we calculated the ratio of AHN patients in the discharged group.
Results: On comparing the discharge and death groups according to the degree of undernutrition, serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count, significant differences were found between the groups of all nutrition statuses except moderate undernutrition. Furthermore, the patients with moderate undernutrition status demonstrated no statistically significant difference in both groups, except the serum albumin level. Among the discharged patients, the ratio of AHN was 37.0% in those with a normal nutrition status and more than 50% in the patients with light to severe undernutrition.
Conclusion: We calculated and scored the serum albumin level, total cholesterol level, total lymphocyte count and the degree of undernutrition according to CONUT in elderly undernourished inpatients admitted to the internal medical department of an emergency hospital.
We then divided the patients into groups, based on death or discharge from the hospital as well as nutrition status, normal, light undernutrition, moderate undernutrition and severe undernutrition. Therefore, comparing the groups based on their death or discharge, their nutrition status was found to be helpful for predicting the prognosis.
Purpose: This study was performed to determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on the oral and respiratory functions of community-dwelling older people.
Methods: Older people using a visiting-rehabilitation center were divided into an intervention group of 31 subjects and a control group of 15 subjects. Those in the intervention group were assigned home training for 8 weeks, which included 5 sets of 5 breaths per day with a 75% load of the maximum expiratory pressure using an EMST device. The outcome indices included (1) oral functions, evaluated by the cumulative time spent swallowing three times and the maximum phonation time (MPT) and (2) respiratory functions, evaluated by the maximum expiratory pressure and maximum inspiratory pressure (MEP/MIP). An independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data.
Results: The cumulative time spent swallowing three times was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. This difference remained significant even after adjusting for sex, age, and baseline values. The MPT was 2.1 seconds higher than baseline in the intervention group but 0.4 seconds lower than baseline in the control group. An average increase of 5.7 cmH2O in the PEmax was observed in the intervention group compared with an average decrease of 4.6 cmH2O in the control group, indicating a significant difference.
Conclusion: These results suggest that EMST improves the oral and respiratory functions of community elderly subjects. This may be explained by the fact that the pathway for swallowing is partially shared with that for phonation, which contributes to a shortened swallowing time by repeated suprahyoid muscle contractions.
Aim: Antiviral treatment for hepatitis C infection in elderly patients has been dramatically improved by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). DAAs are easy to use as they are administered orally and the treatment periods are shorter. Furthermore, they are associated with fewer adverse effects. In this study, we sought to analyze the efficacy and safety of DAAs in HCV-infected elderly patients.
Method: We analyzed 223 HCV-infected patients who were treated with DAAs in Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan. As of August 31, 2016, all of the patients were observed to have achieved a sustained viral response by the 12th week of treatment (SVR12). We categorized patients into two groups. Group one included 79 patients (average age 75.5 years; range 70-85 years). Group two included 144 patients (average age, 58.1 years; range 27-69 years). Group one included more female patients.
Results: The platelet count of Group one was significantly lower than that of Group two. The FIB-4 index of Group one was significantly higher than that of Group two. Group one included a greater number of patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before the administration of DAAs. The SVR12 rate and rate of drop-out due to adverse effects did not differ between the two groups to a statistically significant extent. The rate of HCC occurrence after SVR in Group one was higher than that in Group two.
Conclusion: Our study shows that DAAs can be used for older patients and that the antiviral efficacy and safety are similar to the efficacy and safety in younger patients.