In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, class II gene promoters contain two classes of TATA elements: the TATA box and the TATA-like element. Functional loss of TFIID and SAGA transcription complexes selectively impacts steady-state mRNA levels expressed from TATA-like element-containing (i.e., TATA-less) and TATA box-containing promoters, respectively. While nascent RNA analysis has revealed that TFIID and SAGA are required for both types of promoters, the division of their roles remains unclear. We show here that transcription from the PGK1 promoter decreased in some cases by more than half after disruption of the TATA box or SPT3 (spt3Δ), whereas spt3Δ did not affect transcription from the TATA-less promoter, consistent with the prevailing view that Spt3 functions specifically in a TATA box-dependent manner. Transcription from this promoter was abolished in the spt3Δ taf1-N568Δ strain but unaffected in the taf1-N568Δ strain, regardless of TATA box presence, suggesting that TFIID was functionally dispensable for PGK1 transcription at least in the SPT3 strain. Furthermore, transcription from the TATA box-containing PGK1 promoter was slightly reduced in the taf1 strain lacking TAND (taf1-ΔTAND) upon temperature shift from 25 to 37 °C, with restoration to normal levels within 2 h, in an Spt3-dependent manner. Interestingly, when SPT3 was reintroduced into the spt3Δ TAF1, spt3Δ taf1-N568Δ or spt3Δ taf1-ΔTAND strain, TATA box-dependent transcription from this promoter was largely restored, but TFIID independence in transcription was not restored, especially from the TATA-less promoter, and transient TAND/Spt3-dependent fluctuations of transcription after the temperature shift were also not recapitulated. Collectively, these observations suggest that Spt3 has multiple functions in PGK1 transcription, some of which may be intimately connected to Taf1 function and may therefore become unrestorable when the TFIID and SAGA functions are simultaneously compromised.
Paenibacillus polymyxa is a well-known Gram-positive biocontrol bacterium. It has been reported that many P. polymyxa strains can inhibit bacteria, fungi and other plant pathogens. Paenibacillus polymyxa employs a variety of mechanisms to promote plant growth, so it is necessary to understand the biocontrol ability of bacteria at the genome level. In the present study, thanks to the widespread availability of Paenibacillus genome data and the development of bioinformatics tools, we were able to analyze and mine the genomes of 43 P. polymyxa strains. The strain NCTC4744 was determined not to be P. polymyxa according to digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity. By analysis of the pan-genome and the core genome, we found that the pan-genome of P. polymyxa was open and that there were 3,192 core genes. In a gene cluster analysis of secondary metabolites, 797 secondary metabolite gene clusters were found, of which 343 are not similar to known clusters and are expected to reveal a large number of new secondary metabolites. We also analyzed the plant growth-promoting genes that were mined and found, surpisingly, that these genes are highly conserved. The results of the present study not only reveal a large number of unknown potential secondary metabolite gene clusters in P. polymyxa, but also suggest that plant growth promotion characteristics are evolutionary adaptations of P. polymyxa to plant-related habitats.
A homolog of the bacterial ribosome rescue factor ArfB was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. The factor, named AtArfB for Arabidopsis thaliana ArfB, showed ribosome rescue activity in both in vivo and in vitro assays based on the bacterial translation system. As has been shown for ArfB, the ribosome rescue activity of AtArfB was dependent on the GGQ motif, the crucial motif for the function of class I release factors and ArfB. The C-terminal region of AtArfB was also important for its function. The N-terminal region of AtArfB, which is absent in bacterial ArfB, functioned as a transit peptide for chloroplast targeting in tobacco cells. These results strongly suggest that AtArfB is a ribosome rescue factor that functions in chloroplasts.
Recognition of self-incompatibility (SI) is regulated by the SRK and SP11 genes in Brassicaceae. Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are self-incompatible, while most cultivated species of B. napus, which arose from hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, are self-compatible. Various studies of the SRK and SP11 genes in self-compatible B. napus have been reported, but details of the mechanism in different B. napus lines are not fully understood. In this study, we confirmed the S haplotypes, SI phenotypes and SP11 expression in 10 representative lines of B. napus, and identified two SI lines (N110 and N343) lacking SP11 expression. In N343 (with BnS1 and BnS6 haplotypes), we confirmed that there is a 3.6-kb insertion in the promoter region of BnSP11-1, and that BnSP11-1 and BnSP11-6 are not expressed, as reported previously (expression of BnSP11-6 is suppressed by the BnS1 haplotype), although this line is self-incompatible. Similarly, in N110, with two novel S haplotypes (BnS8 and BnS9) in addition to BnS6, a 4.3-kb insertion was identified in the promoter region of BnSP11-9, and expression levels of BnSP11-6, BnSP11-8 and BnSP11-9 were all suppressed (BnSP11-6 and BnSP11-8 may be suppressed by BnS8 and BnS9, respectively), although the phenotype was self-incompatible. This observation of an SI phenotype without SP11 expression suggests the existence of unknown factor(s) that induce pollen–stigma incompatibility in B. napus.
In many animals, neural activity contributes to the adaptive refinement of synaptic properties, such as firing frequency and the number of synapses, for learning, memorizing and adapting for survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such activity-dependent synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. In the synapses of Drosophilamelanogaster, the presynaptic active zone (AZ) forms a T-shaped presynaptic density comprising AZ proteins, including Bruchpilot (Brp). In a previous study, we found that the signal from a fusion protein molecular marker consisting of Brp and mCherry becomes diffuse under continuous light over three days (LL), reflecting disassembly of the AZ, while remaining punctate under continuous darkness. To identify the molecular players controlling this synaptic remodeling, we used the fusion protein molecular marker and performed RNAi screening against 208 neuron-related transmembrane genes that are highly expressed in the Drosophila visual system. Second analyses using the STaR (synaptic tagging with recombination) technique, which showed a decrease in synapse number under the LL condition, and subsequent mutant and overexpression analysis confirmed that five genes are involved in the activity-dependent AZ disassembly. This work demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes involved in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling in Drosophila, and also provides unexpected insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis of the insect molting hormone ecdysone.