GHM Open
Online ISSN : 2436-2956
Print ISSN : 2436-293X
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-4 of 4 articles from this issue
  • Aya Sugiyama, Ariyuki Kagaya, Ko Ko, Zayar Phyo, Golda Ataa Akuffo, To ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.01017
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2024

    Towards the WHO goal for hepatitis elimination, understanding the prevalence and management of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) among drug abusers is crucial. However, in Japan, where drug abuse is less prevalent than in other countries, there is a dearth of epidemiological studies on this topic. This study aimed to fill this gap by investigating virus prevalence and the testing and treatment landscape for drug abusers in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study at a psychiatric hospital in Hiroshima where approaching drug abusers was feasible. Blood samples and questionnaire on HBV/HCV testing and treatment were collected from drug abusers (n = 35, 85.7% male, mean age 55.4 years) and control group (n = 45, 71.1%, 48.2 years). Prevalence of HCV-Ab and HCV RNA in drug abusers was 60.0% (95% CI: 43.8–76.2%) and 28.6% (13.6–43.5%), respectively, which was significantly higher than in the control group (2.2%, 0.0%, respectively). All HCV-Ab positive drug abusers had undergone prior hepatitis virus testing, but only 42.9% of those eligible for HCV treatment were connected to it. For HBV, while prevalence of HBsAg was similar between groups (2.9% vs. 2.2%), prevalence of HBc-Ab was higher in drug abusers (34.3% vs. 17.8%), indicating a greater likelihood of exposure to HBV infection. In conclusion, HCV prevalence among drug abusers in psychiatric care is notably high. Although testing is accessible, a recognized challenge is the insufficient connection to treatment. Enhancing collaboration between psychiatric hospitals and hepatologists is crucial. Disregarding this issue is not an option for hepatitis elimination.

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  • Antonio Agostino Sinisi, Valentina Rossi, Marco De Martino, Francesco ...
    Article type: brief-report
    Article ID: 2023.01021
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 10, 2024

    In steroidogenic tissues, a novel class of angiogenic molecules known as endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factors (EG-VEGF)/prokineticins are primarily produced. Here, we investigated how EG-VEGF/PROK1, a member of PROKs family, and its receptor are able to affect cellular motility in both non-neoplastic and cancerous human prostate cells. Using Western blot and motility test studies, EPN cells, a non-transformed cell line and Cancer Epithelial Prostatic Cells (CEPC) were employed as cellular models in the current investigation. Western blot examination of EPN normal prostate cells treated with EG-VEGF/PROK1 revealed that ERK1/2 was rapidly phosphorylated within 5, 10, and 20 minutes, while CEPC had high and sustained ERK1/2 activity at the same periods. Then, compared to normal EPN prostate cells, CEPC treated with EG-VEGF/PROK1 for up to 72 hours demonstrated enhanced cell motility. Based on our findings, EG-VEGF/PROK1 may play a role in prostate cancer progression by controlling angiogenesis and the motility of metastatic cells in CEPC cells, likely as a consequence of ERK1/2 activation, as contrasted to EPN normal prostate cells.

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  • Yudai Kaneda, Mira Namba, Rei Goto, Kurenai Takebayashi, Masaki Takeba ...
    Article type: letter
    Article ID: 2023.01011
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2023

    Highlighted by the G7 Hiroshima Summit and evident in Japan's complex vaccination program, the issue of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine allocation and utilization, particularly the dilemma of minimizing vaccine wastage, extends beyond national concerns. Various global strategies, such as using behavioral science principles like 'nudges', have been implemented to tackle the problem. However, scientific evaluation and international collaboration are insufficient; thus, analyzing successful case studies and innovative methods is crucial to pave the way for future preparedness and resilient responses to emerging pandemics.

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  • Takunori Sato, Akio Kimura, Hitoshi Yamaguchi, Hideki Honda, Takeshi T ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.01010
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 19, 2023

    To ensure good outcomes in patients presenting with vertigo, accurate prediction ruling out central vertigo is crucial during initial assessment. This study was conducted to develop a clinical decision rule (CDR) using objectively measurable predictors to exclude central vertigo, while maintaining 100% sensitivity. This was a multicenter, prospective, cohort study analyzing patients presenting to the emergency departments of six hospitals in Japan from April 2011 to March 2014. Eligible patients were 3,001 patients aged > 15 years. Patients were excluded if they presented with trauma, intoxication, heatstroke, anaphylaxis, or unconsciousness. The main outcome measure, definitive diagnosis of central vertigo, was based on confirmation of intracranial bleeding on head computed tomography (CT) or cerebral or cerebellar infarction or tumor on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Univariate analysis and multivariate recursive partitioning analysis were performed. A total of 1,938 patients were enrolled. Of 1,133 cases, 60 were diagnosed with central vertigo. The CDR diagnosed central vertigo if any of the following were present: headache or neck pain, vomiting, sBP > 150 mmHg, BS > 140 mg/dL, or LDH > 230 IU/L, providing sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 94.0–100%) and specificity of 21.2% (95% CI: 18.9–23.7%) to exclude central vertigo. The rule was validated in 805 eligible patients, of whom 87 had central vertigo, demonstrating sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 95.8–100%) and specificity of 20.0% (95% CI: 17.4–22.9%). A highly sensitive CDR to exclude central vertigo was developed for patients presenting with vertigo to emergency departments. Further verification is needed to generalize this CDR.

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