Japanese Journal of Health Education for Children
Online ISSN : 2435-2322
Print ISSN : 2189-6356
ISSN-L : 2189-6356
Current issue
Displaying 1-3 of 3 articles from this issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2022 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 3-6
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2023
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  • Hirohisa Kano, Alexander Kuga
    2022 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 7-17
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2023

      This study aimed to clarify the developmental characteristics of orientation and differentiation abilities in early childhood jumping movement by focusing on jumping tasks under different conditions and analyzing the mean value of the error and performance on each test by category.

      Therefore, the jumping tasks were such that the heels of both feet were aligned on a line 40 cm away, with the tasks performed twice each under the two conditions of without an obstacle (condition A) and with an obstacle (condition B). The participants comprised 308 infants 3‒6 years of age. The main results obtained were as follows.

      1)Accuracy by analysis of the mean value of the error:

      ・Changes were seen in the absolute error. In condition B, young four-year-olds (early 4s) showed a performance improvement in the second test. In addition, it was shown that both conditions A and B reached a certain level of performance in the late 4s, and remained at the same level until the early 6s.

      ・Performance in conditions A and B was not significantly correlated up to the late 4s but was significantly correlated in the early 5s and late 5s.

      ・Changes were seen in the constant error. In condition B, late 3s and early 4s tended to go beyond the target line.

      2)Accuracy by category analysis of performance:

      ・Regarding the difference in the ratio of performance levels, the ratios of the upper and middle ranks increased, and those of the lower ranks decreased, as age increased in conditions A and B.

      ・Interrelationships were observed between performance patterns and age. The late 4s tended to show the “immature” and “unstable” patterns, and the early 5s and late 5s tended to show the “stability” and “unstable” patterns.

      From the above, the following were shown as the developmental characteristics of orientation and differentiation abilities required for the jumping task of this study. The mean value of the error significantly improved after the late 4s, and it was confirmed that orientation and differentiation abilities reached a certain level. In addition, regarding the category analysis of performance, the frequency of performance above a certain level increased from the early 5s to the late 5s, thereby suggesting a stable exhibition of orientation and differentiation abilities.

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  • Noriko Baba, Saki Yokota, Kei Takahashi
    2022 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 19-27
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2023

      Focusing on the expression of the inner side, this study examines new preschool educational practices needed for health education (the Health Domain) in the preschool period. This report describes an activity for drawing the inside of the body with the theme “myself after exercising” that was implemented in a five-year-old class of a kindergarten and day-care center cooperation type certified child care center as part of the study. As a result of the activity, four conclusions were obtained regarding the characteristics of the children’s body image. First of all, the children’s drawings of themselves after exercising are extremely unique. As observed so far, preschoolers include a wide range of things in their drawings such as things that they have grasped with their own senses, things that they have seen or heard, and things that they have imagined or fantasized. The items they give priority and focus on depend on each child’s judgement and sensitivity. Secondly, the elements included in the children’s drawings of themselves after exercising can be divided into three categories. The first category contains elements inside the body such as the heart, pulse, blood vessels, blood flow, blood, water, temperature rise, and the skeletal structure. The second category contains elements that are externally grasped such as breathing and sweating. The third category contains imaginary elements and expressions of feelings that are drawn in some cases as a reflection of positive thoughts concerning health improvement by exercising or a child’s wish to be healthy. Thirdly, in terms of the combination of elements used in the drawings of their own body image, the following elements are drawn either alone or in various combinations in different orders: increased heart rate and blood flow, body temperature rise due to muscle contraction, perspiration and body water, increased respiratory rate, positive thoughts concerning health improvement, the fatigue immediately after exercising, etc. Finally, in some cases, preschoolers express their intention, imagination, or fantasy about health improvement based on the knowledge they have accumulated through their daily life experience. In terms of specific expression forms, preschoolers use an animism expression with the scheme “germs (purple) versus good guys (yellow)” in some cases. Some preschoolers draw injuries and bruises as a result or their memory being played back while drawing.

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