Hynobius tokyoensis is a pond-breeding salamander which is endemic to the Kanto district and southern Fukushima prefecture in Japan. To examine genetic differentiation of this salamander, the hyper-variable region 2 (HV2) of the mitochondrial D-loop was sequenced and compared among 66 individuals derived from 37 localities. A total of 20 haplotypes were detected in this study. Six of 21 variant positions in this region were found in the repeat sequences. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this species was clearly divided into two major groups: a northern and a southern population. The dominant haplotypes were different among local populations within each major group. These results suggest that in order to protect and to preserve the genetic diversity of this species, each local population should be protected as far as possible.
Two fresh water turtles captured in the Inbanuma basin in 2004 and 2005 were identified as hybrids between Mauremys mutica and Chinemys reevesii. Analysis of eight morphological charactersrevealed that the hybrids had characters that were mosaics of two presumed parent species . Hybrids with exotic Mauremys mutica might result from recent establishment of M. mutica in this area. Management practices for conservation of native turtles are urgently needed.