Industrial Health
Online ISSN : 1880-8026
Print ISSN : 0019-8366
ISSN-L : 0019-8366
Advance online publication
Showing 1-38 articles out of 38 articles from Advance online publication
  • Uta KOURA, Michikazu SEKINE, Masaaki YAMADA, Takashi TATSUSE
    Article ID: 2019-0189
    Published: May 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2020

    High level of work-family conflict (WFC) is an important risk factor for stress-related health outcomes. However, many studies are cross-sectional studies. In this study, we aimed to clarify how changes in WFC levels over a period 5 years can affect workers' mental and physical health, and to clarify whether there are gender differences of them. This study examined 1,808 civil servants (1,258 men and 550 women) aged 20–65 years working in a local government in the west coast of Japan from 2003 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the change in WFC contributes to workers’ health problems and whether there are gender differences. This study revealed association sustained high WFC and deterioration of WFC conflict with poor mental health and poor job satisfaction for both men and women. In men high WFC conflict and deterioration was associated with poor mental health (OR=2.74). On the other hand, women had strong relationship between WFC changes and poor physical health (OR=2.64). WFC was an important factor as a social determinant of health of Japanese civil servants, and the change in WFC affects subsequent health problems with different trends in men and women.

    Download PDF (347K)
  • Kosuke KAIDA, Takashi ABE, Sunao IWAKI
    Article ID: 2020-0005
    Published: May 13, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2020

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of verbal ratings on arousal in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance. Thirty participants underwent the PVT for 40 min in three experimental conditions: (1) Rating condition, in which they verbally rated subjective sleepiness with Karolinska sleepiness scale, following pure tone sound played every 20 s during PVT, (2) No-rating condition, in which they underwent PVT with the similar sound as the Rating experiment but without the verbal rating task, and (3) Control condition, in which they underwent PVT with a no-sound stimulus and without the verbal rating task. The results show that during the first half of the task epoch, alpha power density was lower in the Rating than in the No-rating condition, while performance was not different between the conditions. During the second half of the task epoch, performance was better in the Non-rating than in the Rating condition, but no difference in the alpha power density. These results suggest that performance deterioration could be masked by the arousal effect of the dual task itself. It could also explain why the PVT performance and arousal in EEG sometimes dissociate, particularly in dual task situations.

    Download PDF (438K)
  • Jun OJIMA
    Article ID: 2020-0016
    Published: May 09, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 09, 2020

    The Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Act was first enacted in 1972. The purpose of this Act is to secure the safety and health of workers in the workplace, as well as to facilitate the establishment of a comfortable work environment. To fulfill these purposes, the Industrial Safety and Health Act aims to clarify the responsibility system in the workplace and to promote proactive efforts by both employers and employees to maintain safety and health in the workplace. Specifically, it is expected that occupational accidents will be prevented by obligating employers to appoint safety and health personnel in accordance with the Act. In this paper, I introduce the features and key points of the Industrial Safety and Health Act, especially in relation to Chapter 3 (Articles 10–19), which provides for the organization of the safety and health management system. In addition, I describe recent amendments to the Act.

    Download PDF (388K)
  • Annette MENG, Vilhelm BORG, Thomas CLAUSEN
    Article ID: 2020-0015
    Published: April 28, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 28, 2020

    We investigated the effects of an intervention aiming at enhancing four types of team-level social capital (bonding, bridging and two types of linking social capital) in six dairy plants with a total of 60 teams. Social capital and work engagement was assessed in baseline and follow-up surveys. The follow-up period was approximately 20 months, comprising an intervention period of 12 months. Intervention effects were assessed by comparing changes in team-level mean-scores for teams that had developed action plans with teams that had not. Results show that teams that had developed action plans generally showed a larger increase in social capital and work engagement than other teams. Differences were statistically significant for linking social capital towards the workplace as a whole and work engagement. However, effect sizes indicate an effect of the action plans despite the lack of statistical significance. Moreover, the self-reported level of implementation of the action plans was associated with the size and direction of the observed change.

    Download PDF (316K)
  • Tomoko SUZUKI, Koichi MIYAKI, Akizumi TSUTSUMI
    Article ID: 2019-0206
    Published: April 25, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2020
    Supplementary material

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are at a high risk of experiencing depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between autistic traits and depressive symptoms is unclear. This study aimed to identify which autistic traits are related to depressive symptoms in Japanese workers. The study participants included 2,049 workers from all areas of Japan. Autistic traits and depressive symptoms were measured using an abridged Japanese version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short) and the Japanese version of the K6 scale, respectively. The AQ-Short comprises five autistic trait subcomponents that assess fascination for numbers/patterns, difficulties with imagination, preference for routine, difficulties with social skills, and attention-switching difficulties. Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the association between total and subcomponent autistic trait scores and depressive symptoms. Participants with higher total autistic trait scores were significantly more likely to have depressive symptoms (p<0.001). When scores on the five autistic trait subcomponents were entered simultaneously into the model, participants with higher scores on all subcomponents other than ‘difficulties with imagination’ were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Total autistic traits and autistic trait subcomponents could be used for early detection of the risk of depressive symptoms.

    Download PDF (355K)
  • Eric GLASSFORD, Nicole M. NEU-BAKER, Kevin L. DUNN, Kevin H. DUNN
    Article ID: 2019-0169
    Published: April 22, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 22, 2020

    From 2011–2015, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted 11 evaluations at worksites that either produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) via a wet process or used ENMs in a wetted, suspended, or slurry form. Wet handling or processing of ENMs reduces potential exposure compared to dry handling or processing; however, air sampling data indicated exposures may still occur. Information was gathered about each company, production processes, ENMs of interest, and control measures. Exposure assessments included air sampling using filter media, surface wipe sampling, and real-time particle counting by direct-reading instruments. Electron microscopy analysis of air filters confirmed the presence of ENMs of interest (10 of 11 sites). When a method was available, chemical analysis of filters was also used to detect the presence of ENMs (nine of 11 sites). Wipe samples were collected at four of the 11 sites, and, in each case, confirmed the presence of ENMs on surfaces. Direct-reading data showed potential nanomaterial emissions (nine of 11 sites). Engineering controls included fume hoods, cleanrooms, and enclosed processes. Personal protective equipment was required during all 11 evaluations. Recommendations to address potential exposures were provided to each company following the hierarchy of controls.

    Download PDF (1338K)
  • Tomohiro ISHIMARU, Twisuk PUNPENG, Chavinthorn MAIYAPAKDEE, Arroon KET ...
    Article ID: 2019-0205
    Published: April 18, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020

    Competency is important for professionals’ effective performance and career development. However, little is known about the necessary competencies and proficiency in these for Thai safety officers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the necessary competencies for this group and to compare proficiency in each competency between senior and junior safety officers. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 73 safety officers using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-five competencies were classified as necessary. Mean proficiency scores were higher for senior safety officers than for more junior safety officers for all examined competencies; however, this difference was not statistically significant for ‘first aid’ or for ‘air sampling and analytical methods.’ Regulatory compliance was assessed as the most important competency. Gaps between necessity and proficiency were observed in managing safety programs for the junior group. In both groups, proficiency was lowest in the competency of mental health. The results indicate that Thai safety officers’ training needs may be particularly high for regulatory compliance, managing safety programs, and mental health. Lifelong learning is important for enabling occupational safety and health practitioners to fulfill current requirements in Thailand and elsewhere. Multiple training approaches and a specialist qualification program may encourage competency development, especially for junior practitioners.

    Download PDF (369K)
  • Norito KAWAKAMI, Akiomi INOUE, Masao TSUCHIYA, Kazuhiro WATANABE, Kota ...
    Article ID: 2019-0090
    Published: March 14, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 14, 2020

    The aim of the study was to investigate test-retest reliability and construct validity of the World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) version of WHO-HPQ according the COSMIN standard. We conducted two consecutive surveys of 102 full-time employees recruited through an Internet survey company in Japan, with a two-week interval in 2018. We calculated Pearson’s correlation (r) of measures of the WHO-HPQ with other presenteeism scales (SPS, WFun, and perceived relative presenteeism), health and psychosocial job conditions. We tested the test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation, ICC) among those who reported no change of job performance during the follow-up. Among 92 (90%) respondents, the absolute presenteeism significantly correlated with WFun and perceived relative presenteeism (r=–0.341 and –0.343, respectively, p<0.01) and psychological distress (r=–0.247, p=0.018). The absolute/relative absenteeism did not significantly correlate with the covariates. The test-retest reliability over a two-week period was high for the WHO-HPQ absolute presenteeism (ICC, 0.73), while those for absolute/relative absenteeism measures were moderate. The study found an adequate level of test-retest reliability, but limited support for the construct validity of the absolute presenteeism measure of the WMHJ version of the WHO-HPQ. Further research is needed to investigate the construct validity of the WHO-HPQ measures in a larger sample.

    Download PDF (328K)
  • Päivi VANTTOLA, Sampsa PUTTONEN, Kati KARHULA, Tuula OKSANEN, Mikko HÄ ...
    Article ID: 2019-0179
    Published: February 20, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2020

    A considerable proportion of shift workers have work schedule-related insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness, a phenomenon described as shift work disorder (SWD). There is yet a lack of evidence on whether or not employees recover from symptoms of SWD between work shifts. We studied whether SWD and its subtypes are associated with insomnia and excessive sleepiness during weekly non-work days and with 24-h sleep time. Hospital employees answered a survey on SWD, insomnia and excessive sleepiness on weekly non-work days, and 24-h sleep. To identify shift workers with night shifts (n=2,900, 18% with SWD) and SWD, we linked survey responses to employers’ register on working hours. SWD included three subtypes: insomnia only (SWD-I, 4%, n=102), excessive sleepiness only (SWD-Es, 8%, n=244), and both insomnia and excessive sleepiness (SWD-IEs, 6%, n=183). Based on regression analyses, SWD was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07–1.88) and with insomnia on non-work days (0.53, 0.31–0.91). SWD-I was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (2.25, 1.31–3.87) and with shorter sleep (7–7.5h: 1.96, 1.06–3.63; ≤6.5h: 2.39, 1.24–4.59; reference: ≥8h). The results suggest that especially employees with SWD-I may need longer time to overcome excessive sleepiness than allowed by their roster.

    Download PDF (458K)
  • Chieko MATSUBARA, Kayako SAKISAKA, Vanphanome SYCHAREUN, Alonkone PHEN ...
    Article ID: 2019-0088
    Published: February 19, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2020

    Occupational needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) affect healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) mental health, however, limited evidence is available on the psychological impact of NSSIs, especially in developing countries where most of NSSIs have been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the anxiety and psychological impact regarding NSSIs among HCWs at tertiary hospitals in Lao PDR. In this study, four among seven items of anxiety scale in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (Cronbach’s alpha=0.80) was applied. Participants who experienced NSSIs in the past 6 months showed significantly higher anxiety scores than those who did not experienced (p=0.004) and the average anxiety scores was high shortly after the NSSI. The 42.7% of them were more afraid of needles and sharp devices in the 2 wk after the NSSI than the time of the interview. The results encourage developing countries to adapt a comprehensive NSSI management policy including not only to take adequate precaution measures but psychological support and treatment for HCWs from immediately after NSSIs to improve safety for HCWs and patients. Further studies are needed to develop normative psychiatric scales with cultural adaptation in developing countries which provide convenient mental disorder assessment after NSSIs.

    Download PDF (449K)
  • Noriko NISHIKIDO, Etsuko YOSHIKAWA, Minako SASAKI, Jun SUDO, Mai MOCHI ...
    Article ID: 2019-0150
    Published: February 11, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 14, 2020

    This study aimed to quantitatively grasp the structure of support for balancing cancer treatment and work among occupational health nurses (OHNs) with the current implementation status. The anonymous questionnaire was designed based on the findings of our previous qualitative study and distributed to OHNs. The degrees of support implementation for workers with cancer, superiors and colleagues, and human resource managers were assessed for each item. Factor analysis of support items was conducted, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was carried out to compare the support scores between the factors. Support for workers with cancer comprised six factors in which the factor, concerning the provision of information regarding resources inside and outside the company, showed the lowest score. Support for superiors and colleagues was divided into three factors, and that for human resource managers comprised two factors. By Mann-Whitney’s U-test, it was found that OHNs, who worked without full-time occupational health physicians for smaller companies, showed significantly higher implementation for several support factors, such as support to human resource managers. This study revealed the structure as well as implementation status of OHNs’ support for balancing cancer treatment and work, which will provide suggestions for developing training programs for OHNs to promote these activities.

    Download PDF (486K)
  • Leandro Dragueta DELFINO, William Rodrigues TEBAR, Fernanda Caroline S ...
    Article ID: 2019-0170
    Published: January 31, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 31, 2020

    The present study aimed to verify the prevalence and association of sedentary behavior and its breaks with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in teaching professionals. The sample was composed by 245 public school teachers (186 women and 59 men), with a mean age of 45 years. Sedentary behavior was evaluated by self-reported screen time in different devices (television, computer, cellphone/tablet), and sedentary breaks at work and leisure were assessed by a Likert scale (never, rarely, sometimes, often, always). Cardiovascular risk factors (overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, blood pressure, and heart rate) were objectively collected by trained individuals in the work environment of the teachers. Logistic Binary Regression models were adjusted for confounding factors (age, sex, and socioeconomic status). The prevalence of sedentary behavior was 55.3% in the sample. High sedentary behavior was associated to abdominal obesity (OR=2.21 [CI=1.23-3.97]). No association was observed between sedentary breaks at work and independent variables, however teachers with high sedentary breaks at leisure time were less likely to present high blood pressure (OR=0.58 [CI=0.32-0.98]). In conclusion, high sedentary behavior was associated with abdominal obesity, and high sedentary breaks in leisure time were associated to lower chances of high blood pressure among public school teachers.

    Download PDF (278K)
  • Francesco MONTANI, Valentina SOMMOVIGO, Ilaria SETTI, Gabriele GIORGI, ...
    Article ID: 2019-0096
    Published: January 25, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2020

    Research has disregarded the boundary conditions of the effects of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at work. Addressing this issue, the present study examines the moderating impact of the (shared vs isolated) exposure to robbery on the relationship between PTSS and employee job satisfaction. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, we argue that PTSS would positively affect employee job satisfaction when the robbery is experienced collectively. To test our predictions, we conducted a two-wave study – with a lag of two month between measurements – on 140 employees from a national bank in Italy. Results from hierarchical regression analyses supported our prediction: the exposure to robbery moderated the relationship between PTSS and job satisfaction. While within the “isolated exposure” group the job satisfaction score was higher among less symptomatic victims, within the “shared exposure” group those with high PTSS reported higher job satisfaction levels than those with low PTSS. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice.

    Download PDF (413K)
  • Jyunya TAKAHASHI, Hitoshi NAKASHIMA, Nobuyuki FUJII
    Article ID: 2019-0161
    Published: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2020

    This study measured the fume particle size distribution and fume generation rate during arc welding of cast iron and estimated the generation rate of respirable dust. In addition, the generation rate of particles with a diameter of 0.3 µm or less was estimated. In this experiment, three types of filler materials (mild steel wire, stainless steel wire, and mild steel covered electrodes) with main constituents of Fe or Fe–Cr–Ni, as proposed previously by the authors, were used. The welding methods were gas metal arc welding and shielded metal arc welding. The fumes measured in this research contained 73–91% respirable dust, and the fume generation rates were in the range of 1.96–12.2 mg/s. The results of this study were as follows: (i) the welding current affects the generation rate of respirable dust, and it is highly likely that the higher the fume generation rate, the more respirable dust is generated; (ii) the generation rates of respirable dust at low and high current were highest when mild steel covered electrodes and stainless steel wire was used, respectively; and (iii) the generation rate of particles with a diameter of 0.3 µm or less was highest when stainless steel wire is used.

    Download PDF (1021K)
  • Amrites SENAPATI, Ashis BHATTACHERJEE, Nearkasen CHAU
    Article ID: 2019-0102
    Published: November 30, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 30, 2019

    A wide range of job-related hazards and personal factors may be associated with injury occurrences at continuous miner worksites but their role has been little documented. To address this issue, a case-control study in India was conducted to compare 135 workers with an injury during the previous 2-yr period and 270 controls without injury during the previous 5-yr period (two controls for each injured worker, matched on age and occupation). Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaire and analysed using conditional logistic regression models. We found that the injury occurrences were multifactorial and associated with hand tool-related hazards (adjusted odds ratio/ORa=3.69, p<0.01), working condition-related hazards (ORa=3.11, p<0.01), continuous miner-related hazards (ORa=1.95, p<0.05), and shuttle car-related hazards (ORa=6.95, p<0.001), along with big family size, no-formal education, and presence of disease (adjusted odds ratios varying between 2 to 4). Stratified analyses showed that among the 36–60 yr-old workers, hand tool-related hazards, working condition-related hazards, and shuttle car-related hazards had significant ORa (6.62, 4.38 and 15.65, respectively with p<0.01), while among the younger workers, only shuttle car-related hazards had significant ORa (4.25, p<0.05). These findings may help to understand the risk patterns of injuries and to implement appropriate prevention strategies.

    Download PDF (284K)
  • Xueyan ZHANG, Ning JIA, Zhongxu WANG
    Article ID: 2019-0158
    Published: November 30, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 30, 2019

    Taking action in response to anthropometrics is important to respirator fit. We aimed to investigate the associations between the filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit and the head-face dimensions among Chinese people. We used data from 85 volunteers. We focused on fit factors and 8 head-facial dimensions of subjects. The fit factors from 4 respirator models with different protection levels and shapes were measured by a PortaCount® fit tester. Each subject tested four respirator models, for a total of four quantitative fit tests per subject. Passing rate (PR) of each model was determined at fit factor level no less than 100. The data of 85 subjects aged 22–51 yr old were analyzed using χ2 test, one-way ANOVA test, t-test and non-conditional logistic regression model. The PRs for the 4 models were 52.9%, 61.2%, 40.0% and 63.5%, which were significantly different. We found the positive effect of morphological facial length and negative effect of bitragion-submandibular arc on fit factors. This confirms it is necessary to conduct fit test before using a respirator. PRs varied among 4 models regardless of their protection level and shape. Anthropometric dimension of the user, which had effects on FFR fit, should be considered when designing respirator.

    Download PDF (509K)
  • Sean BANAEE, Shane S. QUE HEE
    Article ID: 2019-0146
    Published: November 02, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2019

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the glycol ethers, 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) and 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) through disposable, nitrile exam gloves using a modified ASTM closed-loop module. The purple unsupported, unlined, powderless nitrile glove from Kimberly-Clark was challenged by the two pure glycol ethers. Their permeation parameters were measured with the aid of a 2.54 cm ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation cell using water collection at 35.0 ± 0.5oC in a moving tray water bath, and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification. Each set of experiments consisted of four standard permeation cells with water as the collection solvent. The steady state permeation rate for 2-EE of 4.83 ± 0.45 µg/cm2/min was about 4 times that of 2-BE (1.27 ± 0.11 µg/cm2/min). Permeation of the more nonpolar 2-BE was less than for 2-EE. Both solvents exceeded the ASTM threshold normalized breakthrough time in the closed-loop testing module. Glove samples failed to pass permeation criteria defined by Kimberly Clark and Ansell. Such gloves are not recommended as personal protective equipment for exposure to 2-butoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol, even for very short period exposures. Glove manufacturers should reconsider existing permeation testing method for low volatile compounds and apply the closed-loop module due to higher sensitivity and accuracy.

    Download PDF (334K)
  • Yuko OCHIAI, Masaya TAKAHASHI, Tomoaki MATSUO, Takeshi SASAKI, Kenji F ...
    Article ID: 2019-0126
    Published: November 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 01, 2019

    This study investigated the correlation between objective and subjective working hours (OWH and SWH, respectively) and their relation to the workers’ health. The study included 6,806 workers of a Japanese company (response rate=86.6%). OWH were collected as the monthly data during fiscal year 2017 from the company record. SWH were self-reported as the weekly data during the past month in November 2017. Both OWH and SWH corresponded to the same period of one month (October 2017). Additionally, the data for the annual health checkup in fiscal year 2017 and self-reported mental health in November 2017 were collected. The results indicated that the longer OWH was related to more underestimation of SWH. The analyses of covariance adjusted for the selected variables showed that irrespective of OWH or SWH, significant relationships were found for stress responses but not for body mass index, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, significant relationships with only OWH were noted for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and positive work-related state of mind. The present findings show that SWH should be used carefully when assessing the health effects of long working hours.

    Download PDF (218K)
  • Ching-Mei HSIEH, Chieh-Jan CHEN, Tsu-Te PENG, Sheryl CHEN, Po-Han CHEN
    Article ID: 2019-0131
    Published: November 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 01, 2019

    This study investigated the correlation between workplace justice and self-reported occupational accidents among employees of construction industry in Taiwan, and data from a national survey of employees in 2013 was analyzed. This study sampled a total of 1,543 employees age 25 to 65 in the construction industry, among whom 1,379 were men and 164 were women. Information regarding the experience of work-related accidents occurring over the previous 12 months prior to the survey was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Also obtained were participants’ employment conditions, self-reported health, job demands as well as workplace justice. The prevalence rates of occupational accidents in man and women were 22.84% and 13.41%, respectively. Under controlling participants’ employment conditions, self-reported health and job demands there was higher rate of occupational accidents among male construction employees with lower workplace justice. This study provides directions for occupational safety and health interventions.

    Download PDF (303K)
  • Eva Nabiha ZAMRI, Victor Chee Wai HOE, Foong Ming MOY
    Article ID: 2019-0106
    Published: October 31, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 31, 2019

    Low back pain (LBP) is prevalent among workers both in developed and developing countries. School teachers represent a high proportion of working population in Malaysia. However, there is a lack of longitudinal study on predictors and course of LBP among teachers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the predictors and course of LBP among secondary school teachers. Longitudinal data of 701 teachers in Selangor, Malaysia were collected from May 2015 to October 2016. Associations between predictors and LBP were analysed using logistic regression and reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). At 12-month of follow-up, 44% (95%CI: 40.6%, 48.0%) of the participants reported to have LBP. In the regression model that included all risk factors, only LBP at baseline (OR 10.43, 95%CI: 6.19, 17.58) was associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. When LBP at baseline was removed from the model, anxiety symptom (OR 2.51, 95%CI: 1.19, 5.30) and lifting heavy weights (OR 4.16, 95%CI: 1.40, 12.30) were found to be significantly associated with LBP at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, issues on anxiety and lifting heavy weights should be addressed to reduce the occurrence of LBP despite the presence of health condition itself (LBP at baseline).

    Download PDF (339K)
  • Jiro MORIGUCHI, Sonoko SAKURAGI, Yasushi KITAGAWA, Michinori MATSUI, Y ...
    Article ID: 2019-0116
    Published: October 31, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 31, 2019

    The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan recommends that an occupational physician (OP) play an important role in implementing the stress-check program since 2015. This study aimed to compare the activities and encountered difficulties of Japanese part-time OPs in 2008 and 2016, and to investigate the effects of the stress-check program. Questionnaires were sent via mail to 946 part-time OPs in Kyoto prefecture in 2016. Completed questionnaires were returned by 181 OPs who were private practitioners or physicians in hospitals, and served as OPs on a part-time basis. In 2016, OPs utilized long hours for activities related to general health examination and to stress-check. Hours for specific health examination, health and hygiene education, health promotion activity, development of a comfortable workplace, and guidance of workers on sick leave reduced from 2008 to 2016. A total of 62% OPs frequently encountered difficulties in the stress-check-related activities in 2016. Many OPs also reported difficulties in the mental health care and the prevention of health hazard due to overwork both in 2008 and 2016. Enforcement of the stress-check program in 2015 changed the activities of part-time OPs in Japan. OPs should be given opportunities to gain more information in this area.

    Download PDF (492K)
  • Keisuke KUWAHARA, Motoki ENDO, Chihiro NISHIURA, Ai HORI, Takayuki OGA ...
    Article ID: 2019-0136
    Published: October 12, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 12, 2019

    In occupational settings, smokers may take quitting smoking seriously if they experienced long-term sick leave due to cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study has elucidated the smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave. We examined the smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to cancer and CVD in Japan. We followed 23 survivors who experienced long-term sick leave due to cancer and 39 survivors who experienced long-term sick leave due to CVD who reported smoking at the last health exam before the leave. Their smoking habits before and after the leave were self-reported. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted smoking cessation rates. Smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to cancer was approximately 70% and that due to CVD exceeded 80%. The adjusted smoking cessation rate was 67.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 47.0, 88.2) for cancer and 80.7% (95% CI: 67.7, 93.8) for CVD. Smoking cessation rate after a longer duration of sick leave (≥60 d) tended to increase for both CVD and cancer. Although any definite conclusion cannot be drawn, the data suggest that smoking cessation rate after long-term sick leave due to CVD is slightly higher than that for cancer.

    Download PDF (263K)
  • Saija MAUNO, Bettina KUBICEK, Taru FELDT, Jaana MINKKINEN
    Article ID: 2019-0067
    Published: October 11, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 11, 2019

    We examined intensified job demands (IJDs) and selecting-optimizing-compensating (SOC) strategies as predictors of job performance (task performance, organizational citizenship behavior). We also investigated SOC strategy use as a moderator in the linkages between IJDs and performance. We sampled three disparate occupational groups (N=4,582). We found that certain dimensions of IJDs showed significant associations with the indicators of job performance but there were also scale-based variations in these linkages, depending on the type of performance and on the sub-scale of IJDs. Specifically, some dimensions of IJDs (e.g., work intensification) related to poorer task performance whereas some other dimensions (e.g., intensified job-related learning demands) related to higher organizational citizenship behaviour. However, SOC strategy use benefitted both types of job performance. Relationships also differed between occupational groups as none of the moderator effects were consistent across the sub-samples.

    Download PDF (428K)
  • Yuuki ONOSE, Seitaro SUZUKI, Koichi YOSHINO, Yoichi ISHIZUKA, Ryouichi ...
    Article ID: 2019-0076
    Published: October 11, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 11, 2019

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between dental symptoms experienced by occupational divers during diving and their participation in preventative dental visits. The questionnaire for this study was sent by post to 160 establishments and 215 members of the Japan Diving Association and participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. Data from 242 occupational divers (male, aged 20–79 yr) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and correspondence analysis were performed to determine the relationship between dental symptoms experienced during diving and participation in preventative dental visits. We found that divers who experienced tooth pain while diving had not undergone preventative dental visits within the previous year (odds ratio: 2.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–6.80). This was also confirmed by correspondence analysis These findings suggested that not undergoing preventative dental visits was related to tooth pain during diving.

    Download PDF (455K)
  • Jessica STANHOPE, Philip WEINSTEIN
    Article ID: 2019-0094
    Published: October 05, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019

    Musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) are common among professional musicians; however, most of the research has focused on orchestral/ classical musicians. In some countries orchestral and classical musicians are in the minority; hence targeting research towards these specific sub-groups of musicians is unlikely to address the overall burden of musicians’ MSSs, unless the research is generalizable to other types of musicians. This multidisciplinary narrative review seeks to answer the question: “why do we need to examine the MSSs of non-classical groups of performing musicians in order to reduce the burden of musicians’ MSSs?”. There are differences in the education, posture, tasks (e.g. military training for military band musicians, dancing for those in musical theatre), venues and management of MSSs for different types of musicians. Future research should compare classical and non-classical musicians in order to determine which specific sub-groups (e.g. military band musicians) have the greatest MSS burden, such that further research into the risk factors of and interventions for MSSs can be targeted towards the sub-groups of musicians with the greatest MSS burden. In doing so, we maximise the likelihood of being able to introduce interventions, policies and practice that reduce the burden of musicians’ MSSs.

    Download PDF (367K)
  • Qian HUANG, Ya-jia LAN
    Article ID: 2018-0271
    Published: September 12, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 12, 2019

    The relationship between colorectal cancer and asbestos exposure has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to determine the associations between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. A fixed effects model was used to summarize the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. We analyzed the dose-effect relationship using lung cancer Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the risk of mesothelioma as a percent (%) as exposure surrogates. A total of 47 cohort studies were included. We identified 28 incidence cohort studies from 17 separate papers and extracted colorectal cancer Standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Cancer mortality data were extracted from 19 separate cohorts among 13 papers. The overall colorectal cancer SMR for synthesis cohort was 1.07 (95% CI 1.02–1.12). Statistically significant excesses were observed in exposure to mixed asbestos (SMR/SIR=1.07), exposure to production (SMR/SIR=1.11), among asbestos cement workers (SMR/SIR=1.18) and asbestos textile workers (SMR/SIR=1.11). Additionally, we determined that the SMR for lung cancer increased with increased exposure to asbestos, as did the risk for colorectal cancer. This study confirms that colorectal cancer has a positive weak associations with asbestos exposure.

    Download PDF (667K)
  • Susy PURNAWATI, Norito KAWAKAMI, Akihito SHIMAZU, Dewa Putu SUTJANA, N ...
    Type: Field Report
    Article ID: 2015-0260
    Published: 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: August 06, 2016

    RETRACTION The following article withdrrawn due to the request of the authors on December 17,2016.

    Download PDF (1018K)
  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013e
    Published: October 06, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2014
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013
    Published: May 07, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2014
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
    Download PDF (618K)
    Article ID: MS1262
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    This study evaluated whether cold-induced deterioration in neuromuscular function can be restored by intermittently increasing the workload. We examined the level of muscular strain, agonist-antagonist co-activation, the occurrence of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency in wrist flexor and extensor muscles at 21°C (TN) and 4°C (C10) with a 10%MVC workload. During second exposure to 4°C (C50) the workload was increased every fourth minute to 50%MVC. The results indicated that muscular strain and co-activation was the highest and the amount of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency the lowest at C10. By intermittently increasing the workload at C50 we were able to reduce muscular strain and co-activation (p<0.05) and induce a trend like increase in EMG gaps and enhance neuromuscular efficiency in relation to C10 (NS). It may be concluded that intermittently increasing the workload, i.e. breaking the monotonous work cycle was able to partially restore neuromuscular function.
    Download PDF (240K)
  • Daniela PELCLOVÁ, Zdenka FENCLOVÁ, Stepánka VLCKOVÁ, Jindriska LEBEDOV ...
    Article ID: MS1274
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and were increased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of the patients with pneumoconiosis. However the possible influence of extra-pulmonary disorders on the EBC markers is not known. Therefore in parallel with EBC, LTs’ levels in the plasma and urine were measured in patients with pneumoconiosis (45x asbestos exposure, 37x silica exposure) and in 27 controls. Individual LTs B4, C4, D4 and E4 were measured by liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In EBC, LT D4 and LT E4 were increased in both groups of patients (p<0.001 and p<0.05), comparing with the controls. Both LT B4 and cysteinyl LTs were elevated in asbestos-exposed subjects (p<0.05). Asbestosis with more severe radiological signs (s1/s2-t3/u2) and lung functions impairment has shown higher cysteinyl LTs and LT C4 in the EBC (p<0.05) than mild asbestosis (s1/s0-s1/s1). In addition, in the subjects with asbestosis, cysteinyl LTs in EBC correlated with TLC (-0.313, p<0.05) and TLCO/Hb (-0.307, p<0.05), and LT C4 with TLC (-0.358, p<0.05). In pneumoconioses, EBC appears the most useful from the 3 fluids studied.
    Download PDF (168K)
  • Carmela Romana Natalina CORRAO, Adele MAZZOTTA, Giuseppe LA TORRE, Mar ...
    Article ID: MS1324
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    Many work activities include hazards to workers, and among these biological risk is particularly important, mostly because of different types of exposure, contact with highly dangerous agents, lack of limit values able to compare all exposures, presence of workers with defective immune systems and therefore more susceptible to the risk. Bioaerosols and dust are considered important vehicles of microganisms at workplaces and interaction with other occupational agents is assumed. Moreover, biological risk can be significant in countries with increasing economic development or particular habits and some biological agents are also classified as carcinogenic to human. Specific emerging biological risks have been recently pointed out by Risk Observatory of the European Agency for Safety and Health at work, and we must consider the worker’s attitude and behaviour, influenced by his own perception of risk more than his real knowledge, that could over-underestimate the risk itself. Therefore, biological risk at work requires a complex approach in relation to risk assessment and risk management, made more difficult due to the wide variety of biological agents, working environments and working techniques that can determine the exposures.
    Download PDF (520K)
  • Takashi MUTO, Yasuo HARUYAMA, Toshiaki HIGASHI
    Article ID: MS1343
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    The mental health problems of employees have become a major occupational health issue in Japan. External employee assistance program providers (EAP) have become important in mental health care for workers, but their activities are poorly documented. This descriptive study was undertaken to clarify the status and future tasks of EAP in Japan. The subjects were all EAP (n=27) registered in the Japanese Chapter of Employee Assistance Professionals Association. The questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2007. We received 13 replies, a response rate of 54.2%. Most EAP provided seminars, stress checks, stress management, counseling, and support for a return to work. The number of EAP contracted with small-scale enterprises was small. EAP communicated infrequently with companies. To promote the use of EAP, their advertising, education and training of staff, accumulation of scientific evidence, development of an official certification system for staff, and improvement of contents of EAP services were cited.
    Download PDF (177K)
  • Siying WU, Huangyuan LI, Wei ZHU, Shaowei LIN, Wenli CHAI, Xiaorong WA ...
    Article ID: MS1250
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    The present study analyzes the effect of work stressors, personal strain and coping resources on burnout among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure burnout, whereas the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to evaluate work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources. The structural equation model (SEM) was established to test the effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout. Among the predictive factors for burnout, work stressors and personal strain were the primary risk factors, whereas coping resources make up the important protective factor. The result from SEM indicated that work stressors had both direct and indirect effects on burnout, with the indirect effect mediated by both personal strain and coping resources. Coping resources only affected burnout indirectly, as mediated by personal strain, whereas personal strain affected burnout independently. The results suggest that work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources play important roles in burnout among medical professionals. To prevent burnout, such countermeasures as controlling the work stressors, reducing personal strain, and strengthening coping resources are recommended.
    Download PDF (223K)
  • Markus MELLOH, Achim ELFERING, Cornelia ROLLI SALATHÉ, Anja KÄSER, Tho ...
    Article ID: MS1335
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    This study examines predictors of sickness absence in patients presenting to a health practitioner with acute/subacute low back pain (LBP). Aims of this study were to identify baseline-variables that detect patients with a new LBP episode at risk of sickness absence and to identify prognostic models for sickness absence at different time points after initial presentation. Prospective cohort study investigating 310 patients presenting to a health practitioner with a new episode of LBP at baseline, three-, six-, twelve-week and six-month follow-up, addressing work-related, psychological and biomedical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify baseline-predictors of sickness absence at different time points. Prognostic models comprised ‘job control’, ‘depression’ and ‘functional limitation’ as predictive baseline-factors of sickness absence at three and six-week follow-up with ‘job control’ being the best single predictor (OR 0.47; 95%CI 0.26–0.87). The six-week model explained 47% of variance of sickness absence at six-week follow-up (p<0.001). The prediction of sickness absence beyond six-weeks is limited, and health practitioners should re-assess patients at six weeks, especially if they have previously been identified as at risk of sickness absence. This would allow timely intervention with measures designed to reduce the likelihood of prolonged sickness absence.
    Download PDF (501K)
    Article ID: MS1352
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    The WBGT heat stress index has been well tested under a variety of climatic conditions and quantitative links have been established between WBGT and the work-rest cycles needed to prevent heat stress effects at the workplace. While there are more specific methods based on individual physiological measurements to determine heat strain in an individual worker, the WBGT index is used in international and national standards to specify workplace heat stress risks. In order to assess time trends of occupational heat exposure at population level weather station records or climate modelling are the most widely available data sources. The prescribed method to measure WBGT requires special equipment which is not used at weather stations. We compared published methods to calculate outdoor and indoor WBGT from standard climate data, such as air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Specific criteria for recommending a method were developed and original measurements were used to evaluate the different methods. We recommend the method of Liljegren et al. (2008) for calculating outdoor WBGT and the method by Bernard et al. (1999) for indoor WBGT when estimating climate change impacts on occupational heat stress at a population level.
    Download PDF (600K)
  • Akihito SHIMAZU, Wilmar B. SCHAUFELI, Kazumi KUBOTA, Norito KAWAKAMI
    Article ID: MS1355
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    This study investigated the distinctiveness between workaholism and work engagement by examining their longitudinal relationships (measurement interval=7 months) with well-being and performance in a sample of 1,967 Japanese employees from various occupations. Based on a previous cross-sectional study (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009), we expected that workaholism predicts future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. T1–T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction and job performance were measured as residual scores that were then included in the structural equation model. Results showed that workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, work engagement was related to a decrease in ill-health and to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts that are oppositely related to well-being and performance.
    Download PDF (220K)
  • Huashi ZHOU, Yukinori KUSAKA, Taro TAMURA, Narufumi SUGANUMA, Ponglada ...
    Article ID: 207-MS1316
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: February 03, 2012
    29 physicians (A1-Group) and 24 physicians (A2-Group) attending the 1st and 2nd “Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis” (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attending the Brazilian training course took the examination of reading the 60-film set. The objective of the study was firstly to investigate the factor structure of physiciansf proficiency of reading pneumoconiosis chest X-ray, and secondly to examine differences in factor scores between groups. Reading results in terms of the 8-index of all examinees (Examinee Group) were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. A 4-factor was analyzed to structure the 8-index: the specificity for pneumoconiosis, specificity for large opacities, specificity for pleural plaque and shape differentiation for small opacities loaded on the Factor 1; the sensitivity for pneumoconiosis and sensitivity for large opacities loaded on the Factor 2; the sensitivity for pleural plaque loaded on the Factor 3; the profusion increment consistency loaded on the Factor 4. 4-Factor scores were compared between each other of the three groups. The Factor 2 scores in A1 and A2 groups were significantly higher than in B-Group. Four factors could reflect four aspects of reading proficiency of pneumoconiosis X-ray, and it was suggested that 4-factor scores could also assess the attained skills appropriately.
    Download PDF (142K)