Industrial Health
Online ISSN : 1880-8026
Print ISSN : 0019-8366
ISSN-L : 0019-8366
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-50 of 71 articles from this issue
  • Mei Ling TAN, Elliot EU, Benjamin Wei Da YAP, Wei Xiang ER, Su Xian TA ...
    Article ID: 2022-0072
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Return to Work (RTW) programmes have become imperative in manpower scarce countries. This paper describes a RTW programme in a Singapore tertiary hospital, reports patient outcomes and discusses the practicality and effectiveness of the programme. Seventy-three workers participated in the programme over a two-year period. A statistically significant increase in work ability and self-perceived overall health status from first contact with worker (baseline) to discharge was observed. Continued programme participation till first RTW was associated with higher work ability and self-perceived overall health status at baseline. The RTW Coordinator-anchored multidisciplinary model which provided holistic support to the worker and addressed stakeholder interests were central to the programme’s success. Greater awareness of RTW programme benefits will improve sustained participation. Our RTW programme features, implementation experiences and participant reported effectiveness may inform the development of improved return to work models.

    Download PDF (1385K)
  • Bożena WIELGOSZEWSKA, Charlotte BOOTH, Michael J GREEN, Olivia KL HAMI ...
    Article ID: 2022-0081
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Little is known about the relationship between homeworking and mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic and how it might differ by keyworker status. To understand this relationship, we use longitudinal data collected over three time points during the pandemic from three British cohort studies born in 1958 (National Child Development Study), 1970 (British Cohort Study) and 1989–90 (Next Step) as well as from a population-based study stratified by four age groups (Understanding Society). We estimate the association between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress and homeworking by key worker status using mixed effects models with maximum likelihood estimation to account for repeated measurements across the pandemic, allowing intercepts to vary across individuals after controlling for a set of covariates including pre-pandemic home working propensities and loneliness. Results show that key workers working from home showed the greatest decline in mental health outcomes relative to other groups. Pre-pandemic homeworking did not significantly change the nature of such a relationship and loneliness slightly attenuated some of the effects. Finally, mental health outcomes varied across age-groups and time points. The discussion emphasises the need to pay attention to key workers when assessing the relationship between mental health and homeworking.

    Download PDF (1157K)
  • Ryohei KIDA, Keiko FUJINAMI, Yoshie YUMOTO, Taisuke TOGARI, Yasuko OGA ...
    Article ID: 2021-0280
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 16, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Female nurses experience work-family conflict due to performing multiple roles, leading to burnout. Thus, this study aimed to verify the association between burnout and the multiple work and family roles performed among Japanese female nurses. The data for 2,255 nurses at 23 Japanese hospitals obtained from the Work Environment for Nurses Study in Japan were used. The variables included burnout, demographic information, additional work roles, and child-rearing or caregiving. Half of the nurses were categorized under the “no-role” group (NRG), approximately a quarter under the “work-role” group (WRG), 16% under the “family-role” group (FRG), and 7.3% under the “multiple-role” group (MRG). Compared to the NRG, the FRG and MRG showed statistically lower emotional exhaustion (B=−0.79, p<0.05; B=−0.94, p<0.05, respectively) and depersonalization (B=−0.80, p<0.05; B=−1.09, p<0.05, respectively). Personal accomplishment was not statistically different among the four groups. Burnout was relatively low among nurses with family roles, suggesting that family roles may have a positive spillover effect on work-related emotions.

    Download PDF (367K)
  • Timothy A. MATTHEWS, Liwei CHEN, Negar OMIDAKHSH, Donglan ZHANG, Xues ...
    Article ID: 2022-0077
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 16, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    TheCOVID-19 pandemic has precipitated broad and extensive changes in the waypeople live and work. While the general subject of working from home hasrecently drawn increased attention, few studies have assessed genderdifferences in vulnerability to the potential mental health effects of workingfrom home. Using data from 1,585workers who participated in the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) study, anational survey conducted in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic in October2020, associations of working from home with psychological distress wereexamined with weighted logistic regression among 1,585 workers and stratified bygender. It was found that workers who worked from home had higher odds ofpsychological distress (aOR and 95% CI = 2.62 [1.46, 4.70]) compared to workerswho did not work from home, adjusting for demographic factors, socioeconomicstatus, and health behaviors. In gender-stratified analyses, this positiveassociation between working from home and psychological distress was significantin women (aOR and 95% CI = 3.68 [1.68, 8.09]) but not in men. These resultshave implications for female workers’ mental health in the transition towardsworking from home in the COVID-19 pandemic era.

    Download PDF (244K)
  • Yoichi MINAKAWA, Shogo MIYAZAKI, Kenta SAWAZAKI, Kaori IIMURA, Hideaki ...
    Article ID: 2021-0186
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To evaluate whetherfinancial aid for acupuncture therapy is beneficial for non-manufacturing jobworkers (office workers) who are aware of reduced job performance due to healthissues (presenteeism), a four-week pragmatic multicenter randomized study was conductedwith office workers who were aware of their presenteeism. The control group onlyimplemented the workplace-recommended presenteeism measures, whereas theintervention group received financial aid for acupuncture therapy of up to 8,000 JPY in addition to implementing the presenteeismmeasures recommended by each workplace. The major outcome measure was the WorldHealth Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire relativepresenteeism score. A total of 203 patients were assigned to the intervention(n=103) and control (n=108) groups. The intervention group underwent a medianof 1.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.0 to 2.0) sessions of acupuncture for neckdisorders (64%), back disorders (16%), and depressed mood/anxiety/irritation (5%),among others. Results showed that the intervention group had slightly better jobperformance than the control group (effect size [r] = 0.15, p=0.03).Financial aid for acupuncture therapy may help compensate for losses incurredby enterprises in the form of 14,117 JPY per worker a month.

    Download PDF (294K)
  • Hiroka BABA, Hajime ANDO, Kazunori IKEGAMI, Shingo SEKOGUCHI, Taiki SH ...
    Article ID: 2021-0268
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study evaluated the differences in respiratory protection between replaceable particulate respirators (RPRs) and powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) based on different wearing methods during exercise tasks. Ten participants wore RPRs and PAPRs alternately in ways comparable to those adopted by workers in actual workplaces. We measured the fit factor of the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) during exercise tasks for each wearing variation. The exercise load was set to 80W using an ergometer. The exercise tasks comprised five actions described in the Japan Industrial Standard T8150 in 2018. We compared the results with experimental data obtained at rest in our previous studies. The fit factor of RPRs during exercise was significantly lower than (p<0.001) and about half that measured at rest, indicating inadequate respiratory protection. On the other hand, the fit factor of PAPRs during exercise tasks was also significantly lower than (p<0.001) and about half that at rest, but respiratory protection was maintained. This suggests that the protection provided by PAPRs is independent of wearing method during exercise. PAPRs may thus be better than RPRs for workers who have to wear RPE inappropriately due to health problems.

    Download PDF (1597K)
  • Sachiko IIJIMA, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Norihiko KOHYAMA
    Article ID: 2021-0269
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The amount of asbestos body (AB) in the human lungs is used as an index to assess asbestos lung cancer (ALC). This study reports a new method to observe the same AB previously observed by analytical transmission electron microscope (ATEM) by phase contrast microscope (PCM). Four kinds of specimens were prepared from the lung tissue of an asbestos related worker: ordinary PCM specimen (A); PCM specimen (B) of which the cover glass was stripped off and ashed at a low temperature; transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimen (C); and PCM specimen (D) covered a TEM specimen (C) with immersion liquid and cover glass. These specimens were all observed by PCM, and the specimen (C) by analytical TEM (ATEM). The results showed that the TEM specimen (C) is transparent in visible light and we can also see the particles by PCM. The image by PCM of the TEM specimen (C) showed very similar features to that of PCM specimens (A) and (B). Accordingly, we could observe various same particles by both ATEM and PCM. In conclusion, the method observing the same AB by both PCM and ATEM will contribute to standardize the recognition of AB by PCM analysts.

    Download PDF (568K)
  • Yusaku MORITA, Koji KANDABASHI, Shigeyuki KAJIKI, Hiroyuki SAITO, Go M ...
    Article ID: 2022-0012
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study evaluated the relationship between occupational injuryrisk and gig work, which included the exchangeof labor for money between individuals or companies via digital platforms. AsJapan has experienced a severe economic decline during the coronavirus disease2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of individuals have engaged ingig work. While few studies have evaluated occupational risks in gig work, severaltraffic accidents associated with food delivery work have been reported in themass media. In this study, 18,317 individuals completed an internet survey thatcollected information pertaining to their involvement in gig work andexperience of related occupational injuries; data regarding several confounding factors were also recorded. Multiplelogistic regression analysis showed that workersinvolved in gig work had a greater risk of any minor occupational injuries(odds ratio, 3.40; 95% confidenceinterval, 2.81–4.11) and activity-limiting injuries (odds ratio, 8.37; 95% confidenceinterval, 6.47–10.82) than those not involved in gig work, after adjusting for age,sex, household income, lifestyle factors, and work-related factors. The resultsof this study indicate that gig workers are exposed to greater occupationalhazards during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional studies are warranted toclarify the causal mechanism for this relationship.

    Download PDF (253K)
  • Rakesh BALACHANDAR, Asha KETHARAM, Srikala BHARATH
    Article ID: 2022-0019
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An imbalance in the keyorganizational psychology constructs viz. “Workload”, “Reward”, “Community”,“Control”, “Values” and “Fairness” are potential factors leading to negativeoccupational mental health, i.e. burnout. Burnout, a psychological syndrome is thecombination of emotional exhaustion, sense of reduced compassion andaccomplishment. To note, the concept of occupational mental health in a nationwith second largest workforce is nascent. Further, the utility of existingwestern tools in Indian subcontinent is limited by culturallyinappropriateness, patented, less comprehensible and other factors. Presentstudy attempted to develop tools to screen occupational mental health andworkplace areas. Conventional steps involved in psychological tool development,viz. construct identification, drafting of pertinent questions, contentvalidation, field testing of questions and others were adopted. After series ofsteps, tools for screening occupational mental health and key constructsinfluencing mental health at workplace (workplace assessment) were developed.The screening tools exhibited adequate test - retest reliability, internalconsistency / reliability (cronbach’s α>0.73) and correlation (correlationcoefficient > 0.6) with the general mental health in larger evaluation of 153consenting workers. The proposed simple and easy to administer tool requiresdevelopment of normative scores thereby aiding early diagnosis and managementof those requiring intervention.

    Download PDF (750K)
  • Jodi OAKMAN, Natasha KINSMAN, Melissa GRAHAM, Rwth STUCKEY, Victoria W ...
    Article ID: 2022-0042
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Many Australian workers were mandated to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a qualitative approach, this study aimed to identify optimal work from home management strategies, by analysing the experience of Australian employees working from home (WFH) during this time. A purposive sample, drawn from the Australian Employees Working from Home Study, of managers and non-managers from a range of sectors, was invited to participate in focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and mapped to the work-systems framework approach to determine strategies implemented to support WFH. Most participants’ experiences were more negative than positive, in part due to extreme lockdowns including curfews, with childcare and school closures compounding their WFH experiences. Effective workplace-initiated strategies to optimise WFH included: management support of flexible work hours; provision of necessary equipment with ICT support; regular online communication; performance management adjustments; and manager training.

    Download PDF (389K)
  • Junyan HOU, Shu DA, Yuying WEI, Xichao ZHANG
    Article ID: 2021-0136
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Since the turn of the millennium, the information technology (IT) industry has been growing rapidly in mainland China. One of the significant characteristics of IT employees in mainland China during the past decades was that they tended to work more overtime, which might result in more work-family conflicts and higher turnover rates. Our study tested the mechanism of work-family conflict and work withdrawal behaviors using data from 389 IT employees in mainland China. Using the job demands-resources model and the conservation of resources theory, we examined the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion and the moderating effect of job autonomy. The results indicated that work-to-family conflict was negatively related with work withdrawal behaviors, whereas family-to-work conflict was positively related with work withdrawal behaviors. Moreover, we found the opposite moderating role of job autonomy, which enhanced the relationships between emotional exhaustion and work withdrawal behaviors. That is, the relationship was stronger among employees with higher job autonomy than among those with lower job autonomy. These findings indicate that work-family conflict relates to employees’ psychological well-being and behavior, and that job autonomy might play a special role between work-family conflict and work withdrawal behaviors.

    Download PDF (288K)
  • Abhijith K. ANIL, Raihan MANNAN, K SHANMUGASUNDARAM, Geetanjali BADE, ...
    Article ID: 2021-0279
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    N95 masks filter 95% of the small particles and respiratory droplets (>0.3 µm diameter). Therefore, they are widely used both by general public and health workers during pandemic. When physical activity or exercise is performed wearing N95 mask, it induces hypercapnic environment. The heat burden is also increased leading to discomfort and reduced compliance. This study was done to compare physiological effects and subjective perceptions while wearing N95 mask and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) (2 fans, N95 filter) during incremental exercise. ECG, respiratory movement, SpO2, temperature inside the mask were recorded and perception of discomfort was also assessed. Heart rate variability (HRV) values during baseline were within normal limits in both the mask conditions signifying that cardiac autonomic tone is comparable. During incremental exercise, fall in SpO2 was significantly lesser in PAPR as compared to N95 mask at 60–70% and 70–80% of maximum achievable heart rate. The temperatures inside both the mask conditions were significantly higher than ambient temperature. The scores of humid, hot, breath resistance and fatigue were significantly lower in PAPR than N95 mask. In conditions where prolonged use of mask is required with strenuous physical exertion or exercise, PAPR could be preferred over N95 mask.

    Download PDF (1088K)
  • Ko MATSUDAIRA, Takahiko YOSHIMOTO, Hiroyuki OKA
    Article ID: 60_300
    Published: May 31, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Download PDF (138K)
  • Jooman NOH, Seongjin LEE, Hong Chong CHO
    Article ID: 2021-0252
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 07, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The rate of industrial accidents in Korea is two to three times higher than those in advanced countries such as Germany. These accidents are mainly concentrated in high-risk industrial areas. Using the ninth wave of the Occupational Safety and Health Company Survey by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI), we analyzed the influence of corporate culture on the occurrence of occupational accidents in high-risk industries using negative binomial regression. We found that older workers and foreign workers had a positive effect on the accident rate, while female workers had a negative effect on the accident rate. In addition, it was found that the health and safety management organization also reduced occupational accidents. Corporate culture and workplace environment significantly reduced industrial accidents among workers. This suggests that internal elements of an organization such as corporate culture and working environment can have an impact in reducing the occurrence of industrial accidents.

    Download PDF (574K)
  • Shinichi IWASAKI, Yasuhiko DEGUCHI, Tomoyuki HIROTA, Yoshiki SHIRAHAMA ...
    Article ID: 2021-0169
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Sickness absences are a significant public health and economic problem worldwide. However, sickness absence diagnoses and trends have not been reported in much detail in Japan. This study was a retrospective cohort study. We examined data on certified diagnoses and the durations of sickness absence lasting over 90 days (long-term sickness absence) from 2009–2018 among city public servants in Japan. We found that 1) “Mental and behavioral disorders” (495.0–780.6 per 100,000 employees) was the most prevalent reason for long-term sickness absence, and “Mood disorders” (318.6–584.3 per 100,000 employees) was the most prevalent mental disorders diagnosis in each study year; 2) the prevalence of long-term sickness absence for mental disorders showed decreasing trends (781/100,000 in 2009 to 622/100,000 in 2018; [p=0.005, for the trend test]); 3) the trends differed by gender (p<0.05) and age (p<0.001); and 4) the duration of long-term sickness absence related to mental disorders (13.2 ± 9.0 months) was longer than long-term sickness absence resulting from all physical disorders except for diseases of the circulatory system (15.1 ± 11.6 months). Increased focus on significant depressive and neurotic disorders is needed when promoting mental health in the workplace.

    Download PDF (668K)
  • Ritsuko NISHIMURA, Kazuki MENRAI, Mayu KAJIHARA, Shoichi ASAOKA
    Article ID: 2021-0260
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether 21-hour continuous wakefulness decreases performance in the Iowa Gambling Task and examine the effect of the interaction between a weak emotional stressor and prolonged continuous wakefulness on the decision-making process, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Approximately half of 38 healthy college students were in the sleep deprivation condition (they performed the task at 4:30 a.m.); the remainder were in the daytime condition (they performed the task during the day). The participants in each sleep condition were further divided into non-exposed and exposed to an emotional stressor via a social exclusion procedure before the task, with the Iowa Gambling Task score as the dependent variable. In the sleep deprivation condition, performance in the final block of the task was significantly worse in the group with an emotional stressor than the group without. There was no main effect of sleep conditions or emotional stressors on the task performance in either block. The results of this study suggest that even 21 hours of continuous wakefulness, which can occur in daily work life, may prevent appropriate learning in people exposed to an emotional stressor, even if the stress caused due to it is low.

    Download PDF (484K)
  • Toshiki FUKUZAKI, Shinya TAKEDA, Noboru IWATA, Sawako OOBA, Masahiko I ...
    Article ID: 2021-0237
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To clarify the combined effect of the sub-factors of organizational commitment, this study examined the relationships between organizational commitment profiles and work engagement, psychological distress, and turnover intention among nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted; 455 nurses (38 men and 417 women) were included in the statistical analysis. We extracted six clusters through k-means cluster analysis and applied a one-way analysis of variance and chi-square test for work engagement, psychological distress, and turnover intention. Consequently, significant differences were found in work engagement and turnover intention (both p <0.05), and no significant difference was found in psychological distress. These results indicate the formation of affective and normative commitment among nurses in working energetically or preventing turnover. Additionally, no negative effects related to increases in continuance commitment were identified in this study.

    Download PDF (191K)
  • Kazunori IKEGAMI, Hajime ANDO, Hisashi EGUCHI, Mayumi TSUJI, Seiichiro ...
    Article ID: 2021-0250
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    There is a drive to support workers in Japan undergoing medical treatment who wish to continue working, known as the work–treatment balance. This support for the work–treatment balance is expected to boost their mental health. This study examines the relationship among the work–treatment balance, job stress, and work engagement. This study was conducted in December 2020 in Japan, with 27,036 participants. We divided the participants into three groups by the receipt state of support for work–treatment balance: control group (do not need support), unsupported group, and supported group. The scores on the parameters of the job content questionnaire and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-3) were compared among groups using a multilevel regression with age-sex or multivariate-adjusted models. In the two models, the job control score of the unsupported group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The two social support scores of the supported group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The scores on the UWES-3 of the unsupported group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The support of work–treatment balance for workers could have a positive impact on their mental health.

    Download PDF (1024K)
  • Sejong LIM, Jeong-hun WON, Junghoon SEO, Soyoung JEON, Chang-won KIM
    Article ID: 2022-0008
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Occupational safety and health management expense (OSHE) in construction industry is a statutory expense used for the purpose of preventing occupational accident and health disorders for construction workers, and the detailed usage standard is stipulated in the law and regulations governed by the Ministry of Employment and Labor in Korea. Previous studies focused on improvement of the accounting rate of OSHE and institutional improvement to secure usage transparency, but analysis showed that the review of improvement directions for usage items was insufficient. Considering recent trends, such as the increase in industrial demand to improve existing usage items and the introduction of various smart safety products incorporating the Fourth Industrial Revolution technology, it is expected that it will be necessary to review ways to improve the usage items to enhance the operational efficiency of OSHE. Accordingly, this study collected opinions from various stakeholders, and presented a roadmap to improve usage items of OSHE through importance-performance analysis (IPA) based on the data. This study is expected to meet the needs demanded by industry, and to be utilized as a reference for policy preparation to enhance the safety of construction sites.

    Download PDF (595K)
  • Tianchang JI, Jan DE JONGE, Toon W. TARIS, Norito KAWAKAMI, Maria C.W. ...
    Article ID: 2021-0276
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study investigated the role of job/home resources in the relation between job/home demands and exhaustion, job satisfaction, work-home interference, and home-work interference during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the prevalence of job/home demands and resources during the COVID-19 pandemic, and examined whether working at different locations (i.e., working from home or at the office) affects how both job/home demands and resources are associated with employees’ health and well-being. An online cross-sectional survey study using self-report questionnaires was carried out among the networks of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) association (N=153). The findings of this study illustrated that (1) cognitive job demands/resources and emotional home demands/resources were crucial in predicting employee health and well-being; (2) a conceptual match was detected between corresponding demands and resources; (3) subgroup analysis showed that employees were not heavily affected by the different working locations during the pandemic. In conclusion, this study confirms the positive role of job/home resources. We suggest that cultivating specific job/home resources and establishing an appropriate match between specific job/home resources and corresponding job/home demands is necessary to ensure employees’ health and well-being in times of a pandemic.

    Download PDF (502K)
  • Giovanna CASTELLINI, Dario CONSONNI, Giovanni COSTA
    Article ID: 2021-0283
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Interpersonal conflicts at workplace are increasing in relation to high competitiveness and pressures at work, mainly connected with labor market globalization. Their manifestation is multifaceted in relation to different working conditions and they not only hinder health, performance, and job satisfaction, but can also harm people's rights and dignity. The study analyses issues related to work conflicts and adverse health consequences in 1,493 workers who approached a hospital service for work-related stress and harassment over a 3-year period. The subjects were examined according to a broad protocol covering working conditions, sources of conflict and negative actions suffered, and resulting impact on health status. Many critical conditions were reported in all occupational sectors with some differentiation in relation to gender (women more at risk) and employment status. Higher qualified levels were more exposed to experiencing severe personal adversities aimed at their progressive expulsion or resignation, with consequent higher risk of chronic adjustment disorders, while lower levels reported more stressful conditions in terms of interpersonal disputes and greater interference in the home-work interface. The study can provide useful indications for a better understanding of workplace conflicts in order to set up the most appropriate actions to manage and prevent them.

    Download PDF (405K)
  • Akihiro TSUCHIYA, Koji WADA, Keita MORIKANE, Toru YOSHIKAWA, Yumiko HO ...
    Article ID: 2021-0194
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Among the reports on needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs), many are orthopedic-related due to the frequent use of sharp devices such as pins and wires. This study aimed to identify high-risk instruments, the most common injury sites for each instrument, and the circumstances of NSIs of the hand during orthopedic surgeries in Japan. Incidents of exposure to blood or bodily fluids among physicians during orthopedic surgeries reported to the Japan EPINet between 2000 and 2015 were included in this study. The four most common devices were identified and the associations among years of experience, equipment users, and injured sites were analyzed. We identified 666 cases of NSIs affecting orthopedic surgeons in the operating room. The instrument most frequently responsible for NSIs was suture needles, which were involved in 265 cases (39.7%). The second most common instrument was pins/wires, which was involved in 111 cases (16.6%). NSIs of the hands of orthopedic surgeons were frequently caused by suture needles used in all surgeries, but relatively often caused by orthopedic devices. Orthopedic surgeons must be aware that they are at risk of NSIs and must take appropriate measures and always be cautious when performing surgery, regardless of their years of experience.

    Download PDF (549K)
  • Sadia HAFEEZ, Charlotte GUPTA, Madeline SPRAJCER
    Article ID: 2021-0217
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Gig work is a type of contingent work which has increased markedly in recent times, and is characterised by uncertainty, unpredictability, and instability of both schedules and income earned. Gig workers are also likely to work for multiple platforms and/or employers. These work characteristics mean that performing gig work is associated with higher rates of stress than the general population1). However, it is not currently known which strategies gig workers use to cope with this stress – including which strategies are likely to be effective. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between coping strategies, number of employers and stress in gig workers. An online survey was completed by 49 gig workers. Validated questionnaires were administered to measure coping strategies (Brief COPE) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14). Approach coping strategies (active, planning, and social support) were associated with reduced stress (p<0.05), whereas the avoidant coping strategy of self-blame was associated with increased stress (p<0.05). No differences in stress were seen between gig workers with one employer and those with multiple employers. Findings suggest that some coping strategies may lower stress in gig workers, though long-term outcomes should be considered in future research.

    Download PDF (258K)
  • Yukihiro SATO, Eiji YOSHIOKA, Masanori TAKEKAWA, Yasuaki SAIJO
    Article ID: 2021-0274
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The association between oral diseases and work productivity loss remains unclear. This study examined whether dental caries, tooth loss, and poor periodontal status were associated with absenteeism and presenteeism. This cross-sectional study used two independent datasets: 184 employees at a medical university and 435 employees from among the registrants of an online research company. Absenteeism and presenteeism, according to the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, were dependent variables. The independent variables were the number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT), missing teeth (MT), and self-reported periodontal status. Multivariable linear regression models were developed to estimate unstandardised coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for absenteeism and presenteeism. After adjusting for covariates, among the 435 employees enrolled from among the registrants of an online research company, poor periodontal status was significantly associated with a 7.8% (95%CI = −14.5, −1.0) decline in presenteeism but not absenteeism. DFT and MT were not significantly associated with either absenteeism or presenteeism in both populations. Given that periodontal status was potentially associated with a 7.8% decline in work performance, occupational specialists, managers, and dental health professionals should be aware of the impact on work productivity.

    Download PDF (247K)
  • An-Yi HUNG, Lung-Chang CHIEN, Ro-Ting LIN
    Article ID: 2021-0278
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Rotating shift work is associated with anincreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study compared the CVD risk score in 129 male line workers aged 22–49 years on different shifts in amedium-sized metal production factory from 2017 to 2020. We classified workers into four groups: permanentday shift, weekly rotation involving five consecutive nights, weekly rotationinvolving 3–4 consecutive nights, and monthly rotation involving twoconsecutive nights. We used the Framingham Risk Score to estimate the 30-yrrisks of general and hard CVD (CVD risk estimates). We investigated the differences in CVD risk estimates betweendifferent groups using linear mixed models. The average 30-yr FraminghamCVD risk estimates of each group ranged from 17.5% to 31.2% for general CVD andfrom 10.5% to 20.5% for hard CVD. Workers on weekly rotations involving 3–5consecutive nights had 5%–10% significantly higher CVD risk estimates thanworkers on the permanent day shift. Workers on weekly rotations also had 6%–8% higherBMI-based CVD risk estimates than those on the monthly rotation involving twoconsecutive nights. While 24-h shift rotations are unavoidable, our findings underscoredthe potential CVD risk among workers on weekly rotations involving moreconsecutive nights.

    Download PDF (447K)
  • Tanghuizi DU, Kazuyuki IWAKIRI, Midori SOTOYAMA, Ken TOKIZAWA, Fuyuki ...
    Article ID: 2021-0222
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study focused on everyday furniture and computers used in work from home and aimed to investigate how improper postures increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders using different combinations of tables, chairs, and computers. Twenty-one healthy participants were asked to perform a visual display terminal task for 30 minutes in a laboratory modeled on the work from home concept. Seven experimental conditions were set up according to the different combinations of desks, chairs, and computers. Three-dimensional body posture was measured using a magnetic tracking device. The results showed that when using a low table, floor chair, and laptop computer, the body posture above the hip was similar to that when using a dining table, chair, and desktop computer. When using a sofa, and tablet computers, or laptop computer, severe neck flexion, which is stressful to the neck, was observed. Moreover, excessive low back flexion was observed when using a floor cushion and laptop computer. We suggest that computer work while sitting on a sofa or floor cushion without a backrest is harmful to the neck and low back.

    Download PDF (688K)
  • Päivi VANTTOLA, Mikko HÄRMÄ, Christer HUBLIN, Katriina VIITASALO, Mika ...
    Article ID: 2020-0215
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In shift work disorder (SWD), disturbed sleep acutely impairs employees’ recovery, but little attention has been paid to sleep during longer recovery periods. We examined how holidays affect self-estimated sleep length, sleep debt, and recovery in cases of SWD. Twenty-one shift workers with questionnaire-based SWD and nine reference cases without SWD symptoms completed a questionnaire on recovery and sleep need. They also reported sleep length on two separate occasions: during a work period and after ≥ 2 weeks of holidays. Sleep debt was calculated by subtracting sleep length from sleep need. We used parametric tests to compare the groups and the periods. The groups reported shorter sleep on workdays than during holidays (median difference: SWD group 1.7 h, p<0.001; reference group 1.5 h; p<0.05). The SWD group’s self-estimated sleep during holidays increased less above the sleep need (median 0.0 h) than the reference group’s sleep (1.0 h, p<0.05). In addition, the SWD group reported good recovery from irregular working hours less often (14%) than the reference group (100%, p<0.001). Although holidays were generally associated with longer sleep estimates than workdays, employees with SWD experienced consistently less efficient recovery than those without SWD.

    Download PDF (815K)
  • Alice MCENTEE, Ann ROCHE, Susan KIM
    Article ID: 2021-0159
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Australian’s cocaine use is at record levels. Large increases occurred between 2016–2019, with significant increases predominately found among employed Australians. Patterns, and prevalence of workers’ cocaine use were examined using the 2016 and 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey data via frequency analyses. Logistic regression modelling identified predictors of employed Australian’s: cocaine use (2019); and increased use over time (2016–2019). Workers’ cocaine use increased 63% between 2016–2019 (3.8%–6.2%). Predictors of use, and increased use, were age, marital status, state, remoteness, smoking status, alcohol use, and cocaine approval level. Income and psychological distress predicted cocaine use in 2019 only. Highest prevalence in 2019 occurred among workers who approved of regular cocaine use (47.9%), currently smoked (14.9%), were very highly distressed (14.0%), risky alcohol consumers (13.7%), and aged 18–24 years (13.9%). Numerous individual-level characteristics influence workers’ cocaine use. Workplace cultural norms and substance use climates may facilitate increased cocaine use. The workplace is a powerful setting for cocaine prevention and intervention efforts. Potential strategies include targeting social norms, shifting positive drug use workplace cultures, and providing health and safety training focussing on the risk of use to self and co-workers whilst also examining demographic subgroups’ motivations for use.

    Download PDF (867K)
  • Tomoko SUZUKI, Koji WADA, Michiko NAKAZATO, Toshiyuki OHTANI, Yoko YOS ...
    Article ID: 2021-0253
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Individuals with high levels of autistic traits are at a high risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, and are also vulnerable to job stress. This study aimed to identify which combination of autistic traits and type of job stress are related to depressive symptoms. Participants comprised 992 workers from different regions of Japan. Autistic traits, depressive symptoms, and job stress were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, K6 scale, and Job Content Questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Workers with high autistic traits scores reported significantly more depressive symptoms for all job stress types, especially high job demand. Depressive symptoms differed according to autistic traits and job stress. In workers with high autistic trait subscale scores, those with active job stress reported more depressive symptoms than those with high strain job stress, except for the “poor imagination” trait. This is contrary to previous reports that the active stress type is generally less associated with depressive symptoms than the high-strain stress type. To prevent depressive symptoms in workers with high autistic trait scores, it is important to understand which combination of autistic traits and type of job stress contribute to depressive symptoms.

    Download PDF (220K)
  • Min-Woo NAM, Jinjoo CHUNG, Soyoung PARK, Woncheol LEE, Jihoon PARK, Do ...
    Article ID: 2021-0271
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to identify the major industries and jobs with the highest proportion of workers’ compensation (WC) claims for COVID-19, characterize COVID-19 WC claims in terms of their demographic properties and disease severity, and identify factors influencing the approval of COVID-19 WC claims as occupational disease. A total of 488 workers who submitted COVID-19-related claims to the Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Service (KWCWS) from January 2020 to July 2021 were analyzed. A Fisher’s exact test was employed to associate the severity of COVID-19 infection with demographic properties. The highest proportion of all COVID-19 WC claims compensated as occupational disease (N=462) were submitted by healthcare workers (HCW=233, 50%), while only 9% (N=41) of the total originated from manufacturing industries. The 5% (N=26) of the COVID-19 WC claims accepted were evaluated as severe (N=15) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (N=9). A total of 71% (N=329) of the COVID-19 patients compensated (N=462) were from workplaces with infection clusters. A total of 26 WC cases were rejected for various reasons, including unclear infection routes, infection at private gatherings (including within families), no diagnosis, and more. Given our findings, we suggest an official system should be established to detect and compensate more job-associated infectious diseases like COVID-19.

    Download PDF (332K)
  • Christine BINDER-MENDL, Cem EKMEKCIOGLU, Wolfgang MARKTL, Thorsten SCH ...
    Article ID: 2021-0141
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: January 28, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Previous studies have shown that shift workers are more prone to non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present crossover study is to investigate whether it is possible to improve the health status of shift workers. Nineteen male shift workers (38.5 years ± 7.4) received every other month a dietary counseling for one year. All subjects kept a seven-day diet diary during a night shift, received bioelectrical impedance analysis, and a laboratory examination was performed at the beginning of the study, after one year and at the end of the study. The laboratory blood test included the main metabolic parameters, melatonin and serotonin. Beside subjects were also motivated to incorporate more physical training into their daily routine. After the intervention period, participants reduced energy intake, mean portion size, table salt, consumption of sugar and saturated fat. C-reactive protein (CRP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), liver enzymes, triglycerides, and uric acid decreased, while melatonin level increased. Participants lost body weight and reduced waist circumference after the intervention. Lifestyle modification and dietary information could contribute to the health of shift workers. However, further studies are needed to investigate whether this can prevent disease and whether melatonin production can be influenced by diet.

    Download PDF (595K)
  • Georgia A. TUCKWELL, Grace E. VINCENT, Charlotte C. GUPTA, Sally A. FE ...
    Article ID: 2021-0174
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: January 28, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Sedentary behavior at work contributes to detrimental cognitive outcomes (e.g., decreases in attention). The length of time that cognitive performance benefits are sustained following bouts of breaking up sitting (e.g., using sit-stand desks or walking) is not known. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using a systematic search strategy, with keywords related to breaking up sitting interventions in office-based environments and cognitive performance outcomes in the period immediately post the cessation of the breaking up sitting intervention. Three types of office-based breaking up sitting interventions were identified; 1) sit-stand desks, 2) walking desks and 3) cycling desks. From the eight studies which met the criteria, the impacts of these interventions on cognitive performance outcomes were mixed, with significant benefits in some studies and others reporting no benefit. Of the cognitive domains assessed, working memory, attention, and psychomotor function showed significant sustained improvement for up to 30 minutes post intervention. While there are benefits to a key set of cognitive performance domains following breaking up sitting interventions in office-based settings, no studies have evaluated whether benefits to cognitive performance persist for longer than 30 minutes after the breaking up sitting intervention. Furthermore, specific applications of these cognitive benefits to tasks outside of work (e.g., driving home from work) are unknown.

    Download PDF (679K)
  • Hiroki IKEDA, Xinxin LIU, Fuyuki OYAMA, Takahide AKAMA, Shuhei IZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2021-0184
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: January 21, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study examines the effects of short sleep duration (SSD) on hemodynamic and psychological responses under long working hours (LWH) in a laboratory experiment. Sixteen subjects participated in a crossover design experiment consisting of two conditions: normal (7-hours) sleep and short (5-hours) sleep. In each condition, participants engaged in simulated LWH (13 hours a day), comprising 12 task sessions. Hemodynamic and psychological responses were measured in each session. Results showed that there were significant main effects of condition and session but no interaction for hemodynamic and psychological responses. Systolic blood pressure and fatigue were higher in the later sessions than the first one. Stroke volume, sleepiness, fatigue, and stress were higher in the 5-hour than the 7-hour sleep condition (all p<0.05). These results suggest that although the combined effect of LWH and SSD was not significant, both LWH and SSD caused a hemodynamic and psychological burden.

    Download PDF (1774K)
  • Mila TEJAMAYA, Wantanee PHANPRSIT, Jiwon KIM, Feng-Jen TSAI, Go MUTO, ...
    Article ID: 2021-0227
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: January 12, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The types of workplaces and occupations with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) clusters vary between countries and periods. We aimed to characterize major occupational groups with mass outbreaks of COVID-19 infections in several Asia-Pacific countries. Data on the major occupations or workplaces reporting COVID-19 cases in workplaces from January 2020 to July 2021 was collected from industrial hygiene professionals in nine countries. The proportion of workers accounted for 39.1 to 56.6% of the population in each country. The number of workers covered in the national statistics varies among nations based on their definition of a worker. None of the countries examined here have systematically collected occupational data on COVID-19 illnesses and deaths classified by type of industry, occupation, or job. Most countries experienced COVID-19 clusters among health and social care workers (HSCW) in hospitals or long-term care facilities. The types of occupations or workplaces with virus clusters in some participating countries included prisons, call centers, workplaces employing immigrants, garment facilities, grocery stores, and the military, which differed among countries, except for a few common occupations such as HSCW and those populated by immigrants. Further study is necessary in order to seek ways to control infection risks, including revisions to industrial-health-related laws.

    Download PDF (354K)
  • Vitória B. SIQUEIRA, Fernando M. CARVALHO
    Article ID: 2021-0105
    Published: December 06, 2021
    Advance online publication: December 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The scientific literature about presenteeism among farm workers is scarce. This study estimated the prevalence of and factors associated with presenteeism among paid fruit farm workers. A cross-sectional study investigated 340 paid employees of both sexes, aged 18 years or above, who worked during the 2019 irrigated fruit harvest in the municipality of Petrolina, Northeast Brazil. Information about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, general health status, occupational characteristics, interpersonal work aspects, and the work environment’s structural characteristics was collected in a structured questionnaire. Presenteeism was established when participants reported working one or more days during the previous season despite feeling ill or when injured. Cox regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted by sex, area of residence (urban or rural), employment contract (permanent or seasonal), satisfaction with management, participation in workplace decision-making, availability of on-site healthcare facilities, and on-site availability of sunscreen. The prevalence of presenteeism during the previous season was high: 58.2%. In the final multivariate model, the adjusted prevalence ratio was higher (≥1.20) among female workers (1.42), workers dissatisfied with management (1.28), and those for whom sunscreen was not available on site (1.61). The prevalence of presenteeism was high and associated with personal, work organizational, and workplace resources characteristics.

    Download PDF (545K)
  • Yuko OCHIAI, Yasumasa OTSUKA
    Article ID: 2021-0130
    Published: November 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although an increasing number of studies on psychological safety at workplaces has been conducted in both western and eastern countries, there are few empirically validated measures in Japan. Our purpose was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale. Japanese workers were invited to participate in online surveys at baseline and at one-month follow-up (N=320). The Psychological Safety Scale was translated into Japanese according to international guidelines. Social support at workplace, work engagement, organization-based self-esteem, organizational justice, and job satisfaction were measured. Cronbach’s alphas and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were examined for reliability, and its validity was tested by confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analyses. The results of the survey showed that respondents were 287 at baseline and 236 at follow-up. Cronbach’s alphas of the Psychological Safety Scale were 0.91 (baseline) and 0.88 (follow-up), and ICC was 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a marginally acceptable fit. Overall, the Japanese Psychological Safety Scale had moderate to strong correlations with other scales. In conclusion, the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale had acceptable levels of reliability and validity, and may be applicable for use in Japanese workers.

    Download PDF (321K)
  • Greg G. WEAMES, George B. PAGE, Matthew S. THIESE, Kurt T. HEGMANN
    Article ID: 2021-0060
    Published: November 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Download PDF (140K)
  • Pei-Lun HSIEH, Ya-Chen LEE, Shang-Yu YANG, Ying-Lien LIN, Yu-Ru HUANG
    Article ID: 2021-0160
    Published: November 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In Taiwan, over 80% of home caregivers have experienced musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the past year. Although MSDs in health care workers have been discussed in existing literature (e.g., in nursing staff), there is limited understanding of the association between MSD and the work content of home caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the work content and MSD of home caregivers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in long-term care units in central Taiwan. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, including basic information, work content survey, and information from the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between work content and MSD. A total of 149 home caregivers with a mean age of approximately 50.97 ± 9.80 years were recruited for the study. The frequency of transfer of toilet and wheelchair was significantly associated with shoulder discomfort, upper back discomfort, and wrists/hands discomfort. In addition, the frequency of passive range of motion exercise was significantly associated with elbows discomfort. The results of this study indicated that the highest risk factor for MSD was transfer of toilet and wheelchair followed by passive range of motion exercise.

    Download PDF (704K)
  • Kanpitcha KIATKITROJ, Sara ARPHORN, Chaiyanun TANGTONG, Suchinda Jarup ...
    Article ID: 2021-0161
    Published: November 24, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 24, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Heatstroke is defined as severe symptoms of heat-related illness, which could lead to death. Sugarcane farmers are at high risk of heatstroke under extremely hot outdoor working conditions. We explored the prevalence of heat-related illness symptoms and risk factors related to heat-related illness among sugarcane farmers working in the summer. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaire interviews among 200 sugarcane farmers in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand. The questionnaire addressed demographics, heat-related symptoms experienced during summer at work, and occupational factors. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body mass index and body fat percentage. Watson formula equations were used to estimate total body water. The prevalence of heat-related illness symptoms was 48%; symptoms included heavy sweating, weakness/fatigue, dizziness, muscle cramps, headache, and vertigo. Factors associated with heat-related illness included women and clothing. Sugarcane farmers wearing two-layer shirts had a higher risk of heat-related illness. Farmers with fluid intake 3.1–5.0 liters per day had a 79% lower risk of heat-related illness. Our findings demonstrated that sugarcane farmers are at risk of heat-related illness. We confirmed that working conditions, including wearing proper clothing and water-drinking habits, can reduce this risk.

    Download PDF (274K)
  • Naw Awn J-P, Agus Dwi SUSANTO, Erlang SAMOEDRO, Muchtaruddin MANSYUR, ...
    Article ID: 2021-0210
    Published: November 22, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 22, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study examined inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy in classifying radiographs for pneumoconiosis among Asian physicians taking the AIR Pneumo examination. We compared agreement and diagnostic accuracy for parenchymal and pleural lesions across residing countries, specialty training, and work experience using data on 93 physicians. Physicians demonstrated fair to good agreement with kappa values 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20–0.40), 0.29 (95% CI: 0.23–0.36), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.52–0.67), and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55–0.74) in classifying pleural plaques, small opacity shapes, small opacity profusion, and large opacities, respectively. Kappa values among Asian countries ranging from 0.25 to 0.55 (pleural plaques), 0.47 to 0.73 (small opacity profusion), and 0.55 to 0.69 (large opacity size). The median Youden’s J index (interquartile range) for classifying pleural plaque, small opacity, and large opacity was 61.1 (25.5), 76.8 (29.3), and 88.9 (23.3), respectively. Radiologists and recent graduates showed superior performance than other groups regarding agreement and accuracy in classifying all types of lesions. In conclusion, Asian physicians taking the AIR Pneumo examination were better at classifying parenchymal lesions than pleural plaques using the ILO classification. The degree of agreement and accuracy was different among countries and was associated with background specialty training.

    Download PDF (542K)
  • Takumi KISHIMOTO, Katsuya KATO, Kazuto ASHIZAWA, Yasuyuki KURIHARA, Ta ...
    Article ID: 2021-0099
    Published: November 22, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 22, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The requirement for compensation for diffuse pleural thickening in benign asbestos pleural effusion include five computed tomography findings of organized pleural effusion: [1] heterogeneity in the pleural effusion, [2] declined chest capacity, [3] “crow’s feet” sign at the pleura, [4] immobilization of effusion volume, and [5] air in the effusion. Pleural effusion is diagnosed as organized, immobilized, and in the state of diffuse pleural thickening if at least three of these items are fulfilled, ([1] and [3] compulsory + one of the remaining items). This retrospective study investigated whether the requirement to confirm no organized pleural effusion changes after a follow-up of >3 months were available for cases fulfilling three of the five items; i.e., the confirmation of only [2] with [1] and [3]. Of 302 cases recognized by the Japanese laws, 105 cases with diffuse pleural thickening with organized effusion were enrolled. The number of subjects who fulfilled the diagnostic requirement for organized pleural effusion was confirmed. Eight subjects had a full score of 5 points, 82 subjects scored 4 points, and only 15 subjects scored 3 points. Furthermore, no changes were observed in the organized pleural effusion volume after a follow-up of >3 months.

    Download PDF (1137K)
  • Mitsutoshi TAKAYA, Maromu YAMADA, Kenichi KOBAYASHI, Ichiro HIGASHIKUB ...
    Article ID: 2021-0110
    Published: November 19, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 20, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, airborne particles were collected using filters, and the particle number concentrations were measured in two nanotitanium dioxide (nanoTiO2)-manufacturing plants. Real-time particle size measurements were performed using both optical and scanning mobility particle sizer and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The respirable particles collected using filters were used to analyze Ti concentrations in the workplace air of two factories engaged in nanoTiO2 powder bagging processes. The XRF analysis revealed sufficient sensitivity to measure 0.03 mg/m3, which is 1/10 the concentration of the recommended occupational exposure limit of nanoTiO2 in both stationary sampling and personal exposure sampling settings. In a factory where outside air was directly introduced, micron-sized aggregated particles were generated because of factory operations; however, nanosized and submicron-sized particles were not observed owing to high background concentrations of incidental nanoparticles. Alternatively, in another factory where particles from the outside air were removed using a high-efficiency particulate air filter, work-related nanoparticles were released. The findings of this study suggest that in nanoparticle powder handling processes, a nanoparticle exposure risk exists in the form of nonagglomerated state in nanoparticle powder handling processes.

    Download PDF (792K)
  • Rianne STAM
    Article ID: 2021-0129
    Published: November 16, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 16, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    High exposures to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) are possible in workplaces involving sources used for broadcasting, telecommunication, security and identification, remote sensing and the heating and drying of goods. A systematic literature review of occupational RF EMF exposure measurements could help to clarify where more attention to occupational safety may be needed. This review identifies specific sources of occupational RF EMF exposure and compares the published maximum exposures to occupational exposure limits. A systematic search for peer-reviewed publications was conducted via PubMed and Scopus. Relevant grey literature was collected via web searches. For each publication, the highest measured electric field strength, magnetic flux density or power density was extracted. Maximum exposures exceeding the limits were reported for dielectric heating, scanners for security and radiofrequency identification, plasma devices and broadcasting and telecommunication transmitters. Occupational exposure exceeding the limits was rare for microwave heating and radar applications. Some publications concerned cases studies of occupational accidents followed by a medical investigation of thermal health effects. These were found for broadcasting antennas, radar installations and a microwave oven and often involved maintenance personnel. New sources of occupational exposure such as those in fifth generation telecommunication systems or energy transition will require further assessment.

    Download PDF (3088K)
  • Mika KAWASUMI, Tomohisa NAGATA, Hajime ANDO, Ayako HINO, Seiichiro TAT ...
    Article ID: 2021-0162
    Published: November 16, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 16, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary for each individual to adopt infection prevention behavior. We investigated the effect of infection control measures implemented in the workplace on personal infection prevention behavior. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey through the Internet from December 22 to 25, 2020, during which period coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was spreading. Among respondents aged 20 to 65 years (n=27,036), 21,915 workers were included in the analysis. The results showed that as the number of infection control measures in the workplace increased, implementation of infection prevention behavior by individuals also significantly increased. However, the relationship differed depending on the type of personal infection prevention behavior. Specifically, infection control measures against COVID-19 in the workplace may affect personal infection prevention behavior. Implementation of infection control measures in the workplace increases awareness of the importance of individual infection prevention behavior and its implementation by all individuals. These findings may be applicable not only to COVID-19 measures but also to responses to other emerging infections and seasonal influenza.

    Download PDF (241K)
  • Shang-Yu YANG, Shih-Hau FU, Pei-Lun HSIEH, Ying-Lien LIN, Meng-Chi CHE ...
    Article ID: 2021-0176
    Published: November 16, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 16, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study examined whether interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could reduce family caregivers’ care stress, improve their family functions, and increase their quality of life. This study recruited family caregivers of older people with disabilities from a long-term care management center in central Taiwan. These older people required improvements related to a barrier-free home environment. A pretest was conducted before and a post-test was conducted 2 months after the improvements. The content of the pretest and the post-test questionnaires included: demographic characteristics, Caregiver stress scale, Family functions scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire. This study recruited 72 family caregivers; the average age was 56.25 ± 12.99 years. The results indicated that interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could significantly reduce the family caregivers’ care stress, improve their family functions (e.g., reducing conflicts), and enhance their quality of life. Additionally, after intervention, the family cohesion of family caregivers caring for those with mild disability improved to a greater extent than did that of those caring for people with other disease severities. This study revealed that interventions involving barrier-free home environment improvements have positive effects on family caregivers.

    Download PDF (981K)
  • Alex AGOSTINI, Stephanie CENTOFANTI, Antonietta COLELLA, Lisa DEVINE, ...
    Article ID: 2021-0091
    Published: November 16, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 16, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Shiftworkers are more likely to suffer from gastrointestinal disease and Type 2 Diabetes than the general population, likely due to their altered dietary intakes. Previous research has suggested that coping strategies and health behaviours may be linked, however, questions remain regarding these relationships in shiftworking populations. The Standard Shiftwork Index and Food Frequency Questionnaire were completed by nurses/midwives working forward rotating shifts (N=27, female=24, age=38.4 ± 13.1 y). Greater engaged coping strategy usage was associated with lower total energy, fat, carbohydrate and sugar intake (ρs>−0.1). Greater disengaged coping strategy usage was associated with greater intake of these nutrients (ρs>0.1). Results suggest that engaged coping strategies may contribute to healthier dietary choices. A greater focus on coping styles, particularly during nursing education, may improve shiftworkers’ health.

    Download PDF (352K)
  • Tapas K RAY
    Article ID: 2021-0122
    Published: November 04, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study utilizes Gallup-ShareCare Well-being Index data to investigate the association between work-related well-being, i.e., job satisfaction, and overall subjective well-being among US workers. Subjective well-being is measured by i) daily positive and negative emotional experiences - happiness, smiles, enjoyment, sadness, anger, worry, and stress (hedonic well-being); and ii) current and future life evaluation (evaluative well-being). The study finds significant positive relationships between job satisfaction and subjective well-being both in terms of higher odds of positive hedonic experiences and increased life evaluation scores after controlling for covariates and other nonwork-related contributors to well-being. Job satisfaction accounted for a 14% increase in current and an 8% increase in future life evaluation scores. The results emphasize that not only the income generated by work but the quality of work is also important for worker well-being. In fact, those without a job had higher well-being than those workers who are dissatisfied at work. This is probably the first study that relates work-related well-being to overall well-being, using a nationally representative sample of US workers. Further, this is one of the few instances where the subjective measure of well-being is used in the occupational safety and health literature.

    Download PDF (308K)
  • Yui HIDAKA, Kazuhiro WATANABE, Kotaro IMAMURA, Oraphan Tatha, Norito K ...
    Article ID: 2021-0027
    Published: November 01, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to develop the Chinese version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ) and investigate its reliability and validity. The survey was administered at two time-points separated by a two-week interval among Chinese workers. The Chinese version of the New BJSQ was developed according to the international guidelines. Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the reliability. A variance explained by the first factor was calculated to examine factor-based validity, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed (CFA) to determine the construct validity. Baseline and follow-up analyses included 516 and 52 workers, respectively. In most scales, sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability were observed, and principal component analyses demonstrated that the first factor explained more than 50% proportion of the variance. CFA showed that the four-factor model (Job demands, Task-level job resources, Workgroup-level job resources, and Organizational-level job resources) demonstrated a moderate fit, similar to the original version. The Chinese version of New BJSQ showed good reliability and moderate validity. Future studies should explore content and construct validities and the factor structure of the Chinese version of the New BJSQ in more detail.

    Download PDF (450K)
  • Hyun-Soo KIM, Kyoung Sook JEONG, Yeon-Soon AHN, Ji Hun SONG, Ki-Youn K ...
    Article ID: 2021-0108
    Published: November 01, 2021
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The VOCs and metabolites in urine for exposed VOCs were evaluated for firefighters who participated in the actual fire fighting to determine whether firefighters were exposed to hazardous chemicals, which is the basic data on cancer risk of firefighters. When the fire extinguishing time is long, the concentration of benzene, PHEMA, and toluene among VOCs and metabolites in the case of fire suppression, rescue, and fire investigation work, which is estimated that the exposure of hazardous substances generated from the fire site at the time of fire suppression was large, significantly increased. In the case where the number of urination is 2 or less, the concentration of TZCA, toluene, and benzene among VOCs and metabolites was significantly increased compared to the number of urinating more than 2 times. In the concentration of VOCs and metabolites in urine corrected with creatinine, the concentrations of toluene and PHEMA in urine were significantly higher. The concentration of PHEMA in urine was higher in the group who participated in the fire suppression for more than 11 hours (long time) than the group who participated in the fire suppression for a short time.

    Download PDF (261K)
  • Enrico ODDONE, Roberta PERNETTI, Maria Lorena FIORENTINO, Elena GRIGNA ...
    Article ID: 2021-0114
    Published: October 29, 2021
    Advance online publication: October 29, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign for assessing the release of particles and the potential exposure of workers in metal additive manufacturing. The monitoring deals with three environments, i.e., two academic laboratories and one production site, while printing different metallic alloys for chemical composition and size. The monitored devices implement different metal 3D printing processes, named Selective Laser Melting, Laser Metal Deposition and Hybrid Laser Metal Deposition, providing a wide overview of the current laser-based Additive Manufacturing technologies. Despite showing the generation of metal powders during the printing processes, the usual measurements based on gravimetric analysis did not highlight concentrations higher than the international exposure limits for the selected metals (i.e., chromium, cobalt, iron, nickel, and copper). Additional data, collected through a cascade impactor and particle counter coupled with the achievements from previous measurements reported in literature, indicate that during the printing operations, fine and ultrafine metal particles might be generated. Finally, the authors introduced a preliminary characterisation of the particles released during the different phases of the investigated AM processes (powder charging, printing, part cleaning and support removal), highlighting how the different operations may affect the particle size and concentration.

    Download PDF (1042K)
feedback
Top