Industrial Health
Online ISSN : 1880-8026
Print ISSN : 0019-8366
ISSN-L : 0019-8366
Advance online publication
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from Advance online publication
  • Kazuyuki IWAKIRI, Midori SOTOYAMA, Masaya TAKAHASHI, Xinxin LIU
    Article ID: 2021-0026
    Published: April 03, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 03, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A no-lift policy, which states that care recipients should not be lifted using human power but rather using care equipment, has been spreading since about 2014 in Japan. The purpose of this study is to examine whether severe low-back pain (LBP) risk factors changed between 2014 and 2018. Questionnaires for administrators and caregivers were distributed to care facilities for the elderly and caregivers, respectively, in 2014 and 2018. Questionnaires completed by 612 facilities and 2,712 caregivers in 2014, and by 504 facilities and 3,478 caregivers in 2018 were analyzed. The percentage of caregivers who experienced severe LBP did not differ significantly between 2014 (37.3%) and 2018 (38.3%). However, the number of facilities that introduced care equipment for transfer increased in 2018. Moreover, the number of participants who received training on care methods and use of care equipment increased. Although lifting a resident using human power and taking an unsuitable posture were associated with severe LBP in 2014, only taking an unsuitable posture was associated with severe LBP in 2018. Therefore, lifting a resident using human power has been improved, but taking an unsuitable posture is still the primary risk factor and needs to be improved in care facilities.

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  • Gurmail S PADDAN, Michael C LOWER
    Article ID: 2020-0103
    Published: March 11, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 11, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The insertion losses of four pairs of earmuffs, including one noise-excluding headset, were measured in one-third octave bands in a diffuse broadband noise field using a head-like acoustic test fixture. The acoustic test fixture contained realistic ear simulators with microphones at the eardrum positions. The insertion losses were measured (i) with the earmuffs on their own, (ii) with the earmuffs worn over an anti-flash hood, and (iii) for one earmuff, with the earmuff worn under the hood. The other three earmuffs could not be fitted under the hood. The insertion loss of the anti-flash hood on its own was also measured. Wearing an anti-flash hood under the earmuffs greatly reduced the protection against noise, by 20–23 dB at high frequencies, by 17–20 dB at middle frequencies, by 12–16 dB at low frequencies, and by 16–20 dB overall. Only one earmuff was slim enough to fit under an anti-flash hood. Wearing an anti-flash hood over this earmuff had only a marginal effect on the earmuff insertion loss, of the order of 1 dB. If anti-flash hoods could be designed to fit over other types of earmuffs and headsets, the protection of these earmuffs and headsets would be virtually maintained.

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  • Andrea EGGLI, Diana ROMANO-PEREIRA, Achim ELFERING
    Article ID: 2020-0192
    Published: March 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 10, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study focuses on social stressors at work and the development of physical symptoms in social workers on a daily basis. In a seven-day diary study it was anticipated that daily rumination functions as a mediator, linked to additional daily physical symptoms in individuals. Before and after work, 81 social workers completed daily questions on social stressors, rumination, and physical symptoms. Multilevel analyses of up to 391 daily measurements revealed that more intense social stressors predicted more rumination, as well as physical symptoms. Rumination anteceded higher physical symptoms. A test of the indirect effects showed a significant indirect path from social stressors at work via rumination to physical symptoms. Hence, it was found that social stressors and rumination contribute to the ongoing health crisis in the social work profession. These findings advance our understanding of the stress mechanisms in social work, as well as point to individual and organizational aspects that occupational health prevention programs should consider.

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  • Anahita FAKHERPOUR, Mehdi JAHANGIRI, Sean BANAEE
    Article ID: 2020-0199
    Published: March 02, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To examine the fitting testing of elastomeric half face-piece respirators (EHRs), a total of 41 candidates were randomly assigned into seven EHRs equipped with organic vapor (OV) cartridges which were commonly used in the Iranian industrial workplaces. The qualitative fitting into the facial dimensions was assessed using the Allegro Isoamyl Acetate fit test kit. While the studied EHRs showed very low passing fit testing rates, the 3M, AoSafety (Medium), and AoSafety (Large) had the highest passing rates with 22.0%, 14.60%, and 9.76%, respectively. The AoSafety ‎(All sizes) delivered a higher passing fit test rate than the 3M brand (29.30 vs. 22.0%). The one size fits all respirators including the DUO and Climax showed lower proportions of passing fit tests compared with AoSafety three-size system brands (2.40% and 4.90% vs. 29.30%). Low fit test passing rates were determined among different respirators. The respirators with various sizes and styles had more opportunities for different wearers to pass the fit test than single size models. The initial and annual fit testing requirements shall be developed by local government. Also, the manufacturers are required to pay attention to respirator features and subject characteristics during the production to obtain satisfactory protection for the end-users.

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  • Idayu Badilla IDRIS, Noor Atika AZIT, Siti Rasidah ABDUL GHANI, Sharif ...
    Article ID: 2020-0204
    Published: February 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The increasing involvement of women in the paid-labor market has led to multifactorial exposure towards the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This review aims to identify the prevalence of NCDs and the associated risk factors among working women. A systematic review was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases. Twelve articles published between 2015 and 2019 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Among working women, the prevalence of NCDs was as follows: coronary heart disease, 0.3–5.9%; metabolic syndrome, 52.0%; diabetes mellitus, 8.9–16.0%; hypertension, 16.6–66.4%; non-skin cancer, 3.7%. The prevalence of NCD risk factors was as follows: overweight/obesity, 33.8–77.0%; low physical activity, 51.0%; unhealthy diet, 44.9–69.9%; dyslipidemia, 27.8–44.0%. The factors associated with NCDs were long working hours, double work burden, and stress. NCD is an important burden of working women that will lead to reduced work quality and affect family well-being. Disease prevention approaches, such as the intervention of common workplace risk factors and specific work schedule design, are among the strategies for improving the situation.

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  • Sarah Helene AARESTAD, Anette HARRIS, Ståle V. EINARSEN, Ragne G. H. G ...
    Article ID: 2020-0064
    Published: January 28, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 28, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The study investigated relationships between exposure to bullying behaviours, return to work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) and resilience, and if resilience moderates the bullying-RTW-SE relationship among patients on sick leave or at risk of sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMD). A sample of 675 patients treated in an outpatient clinic was analysed using regressions and moderation analyses by employing SPSS and the Process macro SPSS supplement. The results showed a negative relationship between exposure to bullying behaviours and RTW-SE. There was also a positive main effect for resilience, as patients with high resilience score significantly higher on RTW-SE than patients with low resilience irrespective of levels of bullying. Further, the resilience sub-dimension personal resilience moderated the bullying-RTW-SE relationship, while the sub-dimension interpersonal resilience did not. Patients high on personal resilience showed relatively lower RTW-SE scores when exposed to bullying behaviours, compared to those that were not bullied with high personal resilience levels. Hence, one should take note of the fact that even if resilience may strengthen RTW-SE, bullying is an adverse event which particularly affects individuals who present with relatively high levels of resilience resources, at least when it comes to RTW-SE.

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  • Seon-Hong SEOL, Gyu-Tae BAE, Nigel A.S. TAYLOR, Joo-Young LEE
    Article ID: 2020-0232
    Published: January 28, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 28, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate upper-limb cooling following (treadmill) exercise performed in the heat (33℃, 70% relative humidity) at each of three speeds: light (6 km.h–1), intermediate (8 km.h–1) and moderate intensity (10 km.h–1). In all trials, exercise ceased when rectal temperature reached 39.0℃. Participants adopted a sitting position for a 20-min recovery, and liquid-cooling sleeves with cold water (6.3℃ were immediately positioned. The chosen work rates resulted in a two-fold difference in exercise duration across those trials, which terminated without significant between-trial differences within either auditory canal or rectal temperatures. Auditory canal temperature elevation rates became progressively faster as the work rate increased: 0.03℃.min–1 (light), 0.05℃.min–1 (intermediate) and 0.07℃.min–1 (moderate) (p<0.05). However, heat extraction during recovery did not differ among those treatments: –11.2 W (SE 0.5; light), –11.8 W (0.6; intermediate) and –12.3 W (0.5; moderate; p>0.05). That outcome was reflected in auditory canal cooling rates (0.03℃.min–1 [light], 0.04℃.min–1 [intermediate] and 0.05℃.min–1 [moderate]). Nevertheless, rectal temperatures continued to rise throughout recovery. It is concluded that heat extraction from moderately hyperthermic individuals, using upper-limb cooling sleeves, appears to be equally rapid, regardless of heating speed, providing the same level of hyperthermia was attained prior to initiating treatment.

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  • Kyaw Naing WIN, Ashish TRIVEDI, Alice LAI, Hazimah HASYLIN, Khadizah A ...
    Article ID: 2020-0174
    Published: January 23, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Globally, ILO estimates 374 million non-fatal and 380,500 fatal by occupational accidents annually. Slips, trips, falls and contact with objects are the leading mode of injury, with extremities being the most common body part involved. Occupational accidents are of major concern for high risk occupational groups such as migrant workers, or work areas e.g. construction, manufacturing, wholesale, and retail industries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of non-fatal occupational injuries and its trends among industry workers in Brunei Darussalam. A retrospective cross-sectional review of occupational accidents notified to the Occupational Health Division, Ministry of Health, over a five-year period from January 2014 until December 2018 was conducted. A total of 424 non-fatal occupational accidents were notified, with increasing trend from 44 in 2014 to 132 in 2018. Accidents were more common in males (98%), migrant workers (86%), in the 30–39 age group (42.5%), and in the construction industry (56.4%). Struck by object (37.7%) was the commonest cause and upper limb (43.9%) was the commonest body part involved. There is a need for workplaces to develop capabilities and support mechanisms for risk assessments, as well as auditing and reviewing performances to minimize occurrence of preventable occupational injuries.

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  • Yuki SATO, Kazuyuki IWAKIRI, Tomoaki MATSUO, Takeshi SASAKI
    Article ID: 2020-0218
    Published: January 23, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2021
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    To continue to work healthily, health practices are necessary. This study assessed the impact of health literacy (HL) on health practices in the working life of young Japanese nurses and care workers, occupations with heavy physical and psychological burdens. A web-based survey was conducted with 500 women (330 nurses and 170 care workers) under the age of 30 in 2019. Data regarding their demographic characteristics, HL and health practices in their working life were collected. A significant association was found between high HL and better health practices, such as being likely to rest when tired, working at their own pace maintaining a good work-life balance and regularly performing self-check-ups, which were common to nurses and care workers. In addition, sub-analysis among the high-HL group revealed that the attendance of lectures regarding working life and health for new employees was effective for taking rest when needed, working when not overtired and a good work-life balance. The results of this study suggest that high HL relates to healthy practices in the working life of young Japanese nurses and care workers. Increasing HL or fundamentally enhancing attitudes towards their own health or both may, therefore, have some benefits for healthy working practices.

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  • Soomi LEE, Brian D. GONZALEZ, Brent J. SMALL
    Article ID: 2020-0291
    Published: December 05, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 05, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Potential insomnia in healthcare workers is a public health concern as it may degrade the quality of patient care. We examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in healthcare workers and their perceived need for a sleep intervention. Participants were 62 nurses working full-time at a U.S. hospital. These nurses were asked about background characteristics, perceived stress, sleep concerns, and need for a sleep intervention. They also participated in 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and actigraphy sleep study. A qualitative analysis showed that the majority (92%) of participants reported at least one sleep concern with insomnia-related concerns being most prevalent (68%). Quantitative analyses indicated that those with insomnia-related concerns had higher perceived stress overall and lower EMA sleep sufficiency and sleep quality. Moreover, participants with insomnia concerns had shorter actigraphy-measured nap duration prior to non-workdays than those without. Nearly all (95%) expressed interest in participating in a sleep intervention; an online format and mindfulness contents were most preferred. Our results suggest a high prevalence of insomnia symptoms and a high interest in a sleep intervention in nurses. Information obtained from this study could be used to deliver a tailored sleep intervention for nurses whose role in public health is essential.

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  • Susy PURNAWATI, Norito KAWAKAMI, Akihito SHIMAZU, Dewa Putu SUTJANA, N ...
    Type: Field Report
    Article ID: 2015-0260
    Published: 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: August 06, 2016
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    RETRACTION The following article withdrrawn due to the request of the authors on December 17,2016.

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  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013e
    Published: October 06, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2014
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    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
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  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013
    Published: May 07, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
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  • Juha OKSA, Soile PAASOVAARA, Tommi OLLILA
    Article ID: MS1262
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This study evaluated whether cold-induced deterioration in neuromuscular function can be restored by intermittently increasing the workload. We examined the level of muscular strain, agonist-antagonist co-activation, the occurrence of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency in wrist flexor and extensor muscles at 21°C (TN) and 4°C (C10) with a 10%MVC workload. During second exposure to 4°C (C50) the workload was increased every fourth minute to 50%MVC. The results indicated that muscular strain and co-activation was the highest and the amount of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency the lowest at C10. By intermittently increasing the workload at C50 we were able to reduce muscular strain and co-activation (p<0.05) and induce a trend like increase in EMG gaps and enhance neuromuscular efficiency in relation to C10 (NS). It may be concluded that intermittently increasing the workload, i.e. breaking the monotonous work cycle was able to partially restore neuromuscular function.
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  • Daniela PELCLOVÁ, Zdenka FENCLOVÁ, Stepánka VLCKOVÁ, Jindriska LEBEDOV ...
    Article ID: MS1274
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and were increased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of the patients with pneumoconiosis. However the possible influence of extra-pulmonary disorders on the EBC markers is not known. Therefore in parallel with EBC, LTs’ levels in the plasma and urine were measured in patients with pneumoconiosis (45x asbestos exposure, 37x silica exposure) and in 27 controls. Individual LTs B4, C4, D4 and E4 were measured by liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In EBC, LT D4 and LT E4 were increased in both groups of patients (p<0.001 and p<0.05), comparing with the controls. Both LT B4 and cysteinyl LTs were elevated in asbestos-exposed subjects (p<0.05). Asbestosis with more severe radiological signs (s1/s2-t3/u2) and lung functions impairment has shown higher cysteinyl LTs and LT C4 in the EBC (p<0.05) than mild asbestosis (s1/s0-s1/s1). In addition, in the subjects with asbestosis, cysteinyl LTs in EBC correlated with TLC (-0.313, p<0.05) and TLCO/Hb (-0.307, p<0.05), and LT C4 with TLC (-0.358, p<0.05). In pneumoconioses, EBC appears the most useful from the 3 fluids studied.
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  • Carmela Romana Natalina CORRAO, Adele MAZZOTTA, Giuseppe LA TORRE, Mar ...
    Article ID: MS1324
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Many work activities include hazards to workers, and among these biological risk is particularly important, mostly because of different types of exposure, contact with highly dangerous agents, lack of limit values able to compare all exposures, presence of workers with defective immune systems and therefore more susceptible to the risk. Bioaerosols and dust are considered important vehicles of microganisms at workplaces and interaction with other occupational agents is assumed. Moreover, biological risk can be significant in countries with increasing economic development or particular habits and some biological agents are also classified as carcinogenic to human. Specific emerging biological risks have been recently pointed out by Risk Observatory of the European Agency for Safety and Health at work, and we must consider the worker’s attitude and behaviour, influenced by his own perception of risk more than his real knowledge, that could over-underestimate the risk itself. Therefore, biological risk at work requires a complex approach in relation to risk assessment and risk management, made more difficult due to the wide variety of biological agents, working environments and working techniques that can determine the exposures.
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  • Takashi MUTO, Yasuo HARUYAMA, Toshiaki HIGASHI
    Article ID: MS1343
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
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    The mental health problems of employees have become a major occupational health issue in Japan. External employee assistance program providers (EAP) have become important in mental health care for workers, but their activities are poorly documented. This descriptive study was undertaken to clarify the status and future tasks of EAP in Japan. The subjects were all EAP (n=27) registered in the Japanese Chapter of Employee Assistance Professionals Association. The questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2007. We received 13 replies, a response rate of 54.2%. Most EAP provided seminars, stress checks, stress management, counseling, and support for a return to work. The number of EAP contracted with small-scale enterprises was small. EAP communicated infrequently with companies. To promote the use of EAP, their advertising, education and training of staff, accumulation of scientific evidence, development of an official certification system for staff, and improvement of contents of EAP services were cited.
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  • Siying WU, Huangyuan LI, Wei ZHU, Shaowei LIN, Wenli CHAI, Xiaorong WA ...
    Article ID: MS1250
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The present study analyzes the effect of work stressors, personal strain and coping resources on burnout among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure burnout, whereas the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to evaluate work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources. The structural equation model (SEM) was established to test the effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout. Among the predictive factors for burnout, work stressors and personal strain were the primary risk factors, whereas coping resources make up the important protective factor. The result from SEM indicated that work stressors had both direct and indirect effects on burnout, with the indirect effect mediated by both personal strain and coping resources. Coping resources only affected burnout indirectly, as mediated by personal strain, whereas personal strain affected burnout independently. The results suggest that work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources play important roles in burnout among medical professionals. To prevent burnout, such countermeasures as controlling the work stressors, reducing personal strain, and strengthening coping resources are recommended.
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  • Markus MELLOH, Achim ELFERING, Cornelia ROLLI SALATHÉ, Anja KÄSER, Tho ...
    Article ID: MS1335
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This study examines predictors of sickness absence in patients presenting to a health practitioner with acute/subacute low back pain (LBP). Aims of this study were to identify baseline-variables that detect patients with a new LBP episode at risk of sickness absence and to identify prognostic models for sickness absence at different time points after initial presentation. Prospective cohort study investigating 310 patients presenting to a health practitioner with a new episode of LBP at baseline, three-, six-, twelve-week and six-month follow-up, addressing work-related, psychological and biomedical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify baseline-predictors of sickness absence at different time points. Prognostic models comprised ‘job control’, ‘depression’ and ‘functional limitation’ as predictive baseline-factors of sickness absence at three and six-week follow-up with ‘job control’ being the best single predictor (OR 0.47; 95%CI 0.26–0.87). The six-week model explained 47% of variance of sickness absence at six-week follow-up (p<0.001). The prediction of sickness absence beyond six-weeks is limited, and health practitioners should re-assess patients at six weeks, especially if they have previously been identified as at risk of sickness absence. This would allow timely intervention with measures designed to reduce the likelihood of prolonged sickness absence.
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  • Bruno LEMKE, Tord KJELLSTROM
    Article ID: MS1352
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The WBGT heat stress index has been well tested under a variety of climatic conditions and quantitative links have been established between WBGT and the work-rest cycles needed to prevent heat stress effects at the workplace. While there are more specific methods based on individual physiological measurements to determine heat strain in an individual worker, the WBGT index is used in international and national standards to specify workplace heat stress risks. In order to assess time trends of occupational heat exposure at population level weather station records or climate modelling are the most widely available data sources. The prescribed method to measure WBGT requires special equipment which is not used at weather stations. We compared published methods to calculate outdoor and indoor WBGT from standard climate data, such as air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Specific criteria for recommending a method were developed and original measurements were used to evaluate the different methods. We recommend the method of Liljegren et al. (2008) for calculating outdoor WBGT and the method by Bernard et al. (1999) for indoor WBGT when estimating climate change impacts on occupational heat stress at a population level.
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  • Akihito SHIMAZU, Wilmar B. SCHAUFELI, Kazumi KUBOTA, Norito KAWAKAMI
    Article ID: MS1355
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This study investigated the distinctiveness between workaholism and work engagement by examining their longitudinal relationships (measurement interval=7 months) with well-being and performance in a sample of 1,967 Japanese employees from various occupations. Based on a previous cross-sectional study (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009), we expected that workaholism predicts future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. T1–T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction and job performance were measured as residual scores that were then included in the structural equation model. Results showed that workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, work engagement was related to a decrease in ill-health and to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts that are oppositely related to well-being and performance.
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  • Huashi ZHOU, Yukinori KUSAKA, Taro TAMURA, Narufumi SUGANUMA, Ponglada ...
    Article ID: 207-MS1316
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: February 03, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    29 physicians (A1-Group) and 24 physicians (A2-Group) attending the 1st and 2nd “Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis” (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attending the Brazilian training course took the examination of reading the 60-film set. The objective of the study was firstly to investigate the factor structure of physiciansf proficiency of reading pneumoconiosis chest X-ray, and secondly to examine differences in factor scores between groups. Reading results in terms of the 8-index of all examinees (Examinee Group) were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. A 4-factor was analyzed to structure the 8-index: the specificity for pneumoconiosis, specificity for large opacities, specificity for pleural plaque and shape differentiation for small opacities loaded on the Factor 1; the sensitivity for pneumoconiosis and sensitivity for large opacities loaded on the Factor 2; the sensitivity for pleural plaque loaded on the Factor 3; the profusion increment consistency loaded on the Factor 4. 4-Factor scores were compared between each other of the three groups. The Factor 2 scores in A1 and A2 groups were significantly higher than in B-Group. Four factors could reflect four aspects of reading proficiency of pneumoconiosis X-ray, and it was suggested that 4-factor scores could also assess the attained skills appropriately.
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