Industrial Health
Online ISSN : 1880-8026
Print ISSN : 0019-8366
ISSN-L : 0019-8366
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 56 articles from Advance online publication
  • Yukihiro SATO, Toru TSUBOYA, Jun AIDA, Yasuaki SAIJO, Eiji YOSHIOKA, K ...
    Article ID: 2018-0226
    Published: May 17, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Oral diseases produce enormous productivity loss. However, epidemiological evidence of work stress and tooth loss is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of work stress, according to effort–reward imbalance (ERI), with tooth loss. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data obtained between 2010 and 2011 in Japan. This study included 1,195 employees aged 25–50 years old (response rate=32%). The dependent variable was self-reported tooth loss (having or not). The independent variable was a dichotomized ERI ratio (>1.4 and ≤1.4). Age, sex, sociodemographic variables, work-related factors, and health-related variables were adjusted. Psychological distress was used as a potential mediator. We also examined an additive interaction between support from supervisors and ERI. The median age was 37, and 48% were women. After adjusting for the covariates, ERI was still associated with tooth loss (prevalence ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval=1.01, 1.42] from Poisson regression models with a robust error variance). Psychological distress partially explained the association, and support from supervisors significantly attenuated the association. In conclusion, high ERI ratio was still associated with an increased risk of tooth loss among working adults.

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  • Sonia DÍAZ-CRIOLLO, Marien PALMA, Andrés A. MONROY-GARCÍA, Alvaro J. I ...
    Article ID: 2018-0111
    Published: April 18, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2019
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    This study explored the potential association between chronic exposure to pesticide mixtures including paraquat and respiratory outcomes among Colombian farmers. Sociodemographic and occupational data, respiratory symptoms and spirometric data were collected. Paraquat in spot urine samples were quantified with solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple Poisson regressions with robust variance were used to determine factors associated with respiratory outcomes. Profiles of pesticide mixtures used were identified among 217 farmworkers, but profenofos and methamidophos-based mixtures were more frequent. Chronic paraquat exposure was slightly associated with self-reported asthma (PR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13). Different pesticide mixtures were associated with flu, thoracic pain, allergic rhinitis, and obstructive pattern in spirometry. Although acute exposure to paraquat is low among Colombian farmers participating in the study, associations between respiratory outcomes and chronic pesticide mixtures exposure including profenofos, methamidophos or glyphosate require further specific studies.

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  • Toshio KAWAI, Haruhiko SAKURAI, Masayuki IKEDA
    Article ID: 2018-0222
    Published: April 17, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The objective of the study is to establish exposure-excretion relationship between dichlorometane (DCM) in air (DCM-A) and in urine (DCM-U) in workplace to confirm a previous report. Male workers in a screen-printing plant participated in the study Time-weighted average DCM-A was measured by diffusive sampling followed by gas-chromatography (GC), and DCM in end-of-shift urine samples was by head-space GC. The data were subjected to regression and other statistical analyses. In practice, 30 sets of DCM-A and DCM-U values were available. The geometric mean DCM-A was 8.4 ppm and that of DCM-U (as observed) was 41.1 μg/l. The correlation coefficients (0.70–0.85) were statistically significant across the correction for urine density. Thus, the analysis for un-metabolized DCM in end-of-shift urine samples is applicable for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to DCM, in support of and in agreement with the previous report. In conclusion, biological monitoring of occupational DCM exposure is possible by use of analysis for un-metabolized DCM in end-of-shift urine.

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  • Margo J. VAN DEN BERG, T. Leigh SIGNAL, Philippa H. GANDER
    Article ID: 2018-0233
    Published: April 17, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Knowledge about cabin crew fatigue associated with ultra-long range (ULR) flights is still limited. Current ULR scheduling for cabin crew is therefore predominantly based on flight crew data. Cabin crews’ views on fatigue, and their strategies for mitigating it, have seldom been sought. To better understand the causes and consequences of cabin crew fatigue, semi-structured focus group discussions were held. Thematic analysis was undertaken with data from 25 cabin crew. Participants indicated that the consequences of fatigue are twofold, affecting 1) cabin crew health and wellbeing and 2) safety (cabin, passenger and personal) and cabin service. While the primary causes of fatigue were sleep loss and circadian disruption, participants also identified other key factors including: insufficient rest, high workload, the work environment, a lack of company support, and insufficient fatigue management training. They highlighted the importance of sufficient rest, not only for obtaining adequate recovery sleep but also for achieving a work-life balance. They also highlighted the need for company support, effective communication, and management’s engagement with cabin crew in general. We recommend that priority is given to fatigue management training for cabin crew, which may also enhance perceived company support and assist with achieving a better work-life balance.

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  • Yun-Sik CHO, Jae-Bum PARK, Soojeong KIM, Kyungjong LEE
    Article ID: 2018-0206
    Published: March 30, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    While the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders has recently increased among Korean workers employed in highly physically and psychologically demanding jobs, the relation among these domains remains relatively unexplored. We examined 2,037 subway workers in Seoul, that collected data via questionnaire survey on musculoskeletal symptoms and the work environment, administered in 2009, 2012, and 2015. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used for statistical analysis. After conducting GEE analysis by adjusting for the sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, we found the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms significantly increased in cases with high Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) scores compared with low DASS scores, especially on shift workers. An integrated management method that considers ergonomic and mental health factors, should be used to better manage musculoskeletal symptoms in subway workers.

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  • Wen-Pei CHANG, Yu-Pei CHANG
    Article ID: 2018-0258
    Published: March 30, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2019
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    This study was to investigate the impact of job satisfaction as the independent variable and the type of shift as the moderator variable on the sleep quality of female shift-working nurses. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) short form and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used as evaluation tools. The subjects in the study were female shift-working nurses from teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan. A total of 178 valid questionnaires were recovered. A hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) was used to test for the moderating effect of shift type. The results demonstrated that there was a negative correlation between the total score for general job satisfaction and the Global PSQI scores. The Global PSQI scores were higher for nurses working night shifts than for those working day and evening shifts. HMR showed significant variances in the interaction between general job satisfaction of female shift-working nurses and the day/night shift as well as the evening/night shift. The type of shift had a moderating effect on the ways in which general job satisfaction impacts sleep quality. Furthermore, the moderating effect of night shift on the impact of job satisfaction on sleep quality was weaker in nurses working the night shift.

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  • Jaroslav A. HUBACEK, Daniela PELCLOVA, Dana DLOUHA, Pavel MIKUSKA, Ste ...
    Article ID: 2018-0146
    Published: March 28, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 28, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether long-term occupational exposure to nanoparticles would affect relative leukocyte telomere length (LrTL). We analysed occupational exposure to size-resolved aerosol particles, with special emphasis on nanoparticles at two workshops: i/ the production of nanocomposites containing metal oxides; ii/ laboratory to test experimental exposure of nano-CuO to rodents. Thirty-five exposed researchers (age 39.5 ± 12.6 yr; exposure duration 6.0 ± 3.7 yr) and 43 controls (40.4 ± 10.5 yr) were examined. LrTL did not significantly (p=0.14) differ between the exposed researchers (0.92 ± 0.13) and controls (0.86 ± 0.15). In addition, no significant correlation (r=–0.22, p=0.22) was detected between the duration of occupational exposure and LrTL. The results remained non-significant after multiple adjustments for age, sex and smoking status. Our pilot results suggest that relative leukocyte telomere length is not affected by occupational exposure to nanoparticles.

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  • Mitsuya MAEDA, Ronald FILOMENO, Yumi KAWATA, Tomoyo SATO, Koutatsu MAR ...
    Article ID: 2018-0031
    Published: March 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 27, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study examined whether employment category was associated with insomnia-related symptoms (IRS). We analyzed the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan. The anonymous data of 43,865 people ranging from 20–59 years of age were analyzed. We defined six employment categories: regularly employed, non-regularly employed, self-employed, others, unemployed and not in the labor force. Sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of IRS were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding factors. We further conducted stratified analyses by mental illness, smoking status, and age. For men, the multivariable ORs (95% CI) of IRS for the unemployed and those who were not in the labor force were 2.5 (1.8–3.4) and 2.1 (1.2–3.7). For women, the multivariable ORs (95% CI) for the unemployed was 1.9 (1.5–2.5). After being stratified by mental illness, we found that the associations were not significant in persons with mental illness, and were more evident in persons without mental illness. Smoking and age did not modify the associations. In conclusion, we found a significantly higher OR of IRS for the unemployed, men who were not in the labor force. These associations were particularly more evident for individuals without mental illness.

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  • Leonidas G. IOANNOU, Lydia TSOUTSOUBI, Konstantinos MANTZIOS, Andreas ...
    Article ID: 2018-0216
    Published: March 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 27, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Our primary objective in this study was to design and implement the FAME Lab PHS Calculator software (PHSFL) (www.famelab.gr/research/downloads), a free tool to calculate the predicted heat strain of an individual based on ISO 7933:2018. Our secondary objective was to optimize the practicality of the PHSFL by incorporating knowledge from other ISO standards and published literature. The third objective of this study was to assess: (i) the criterion-related validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained using the original ISO 7933:2018 code; and (ii) the construct validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained via field experiments performed in human participants during work in the heat. Our analysis for criterion validity demonstrates that PHSFL provides valid results within the required computational accuracy, according to Annex F of ISO 7933:2018. The construct validity showed that root mean square errors (RMSE) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were minimal between measured and predicted core temperature (RMSE: 0.3°C; LOA: 0.06 ± 0.58°C) and small between measured and predicted mean skin temperature (RMSE: 1.1°C; LOA: 0.59 ± 1.83°C). In conclusion, the PHSFL software demonstrated strong criterion-related and construct-related validity.

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  • Janine CHAPMAN, Anjum NAWEED, Carlene WILSON, Jillian DORRIAN
    Article ID: 2018-0194
    Published: March 05, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in train drivers is associated with health conditions that can result in sudden incapacity. Drivers are at high risk on several CVD risk factors with research suggesting that sleep may predict CVD risk, however this relationship has not yet been explored. This study investigated the link between sleep and CVD risk, in relation to hours of work day and days off sleep. N=309 Australian drivers completed cross-sectional survey. A CVD risk score was calculated by summing scores from behavioural and biomedical risk factors. Sleep was most frequently cited as the main reason for decline in perceived health status. Main analyses showed that shorter work day sleep (M=5.79 h) was a significant predictor of increased CVD risk (p=0.013). This relationship was moderated by days off sleep, such that when days off sleep (M=8.17 h) was higher, the effect of work day sleep on CVD risk was weaker (p=0.047). Findings indicate the amount of sleep a driver obtains on non-work days may compensate for adverse health outcomes. Successful management of fatigue in safety critical occupations appears essential not only for the prevention of safety hazards, but also for the long-term health of shift workers. Further investigation is warranted.

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  • Irina GUSEVA CANU, Olivia MESOT, Christina GYÖRKÖS, Zakia MEDIOUNI, In ...
    Article ID: 2018-0159
    Published: February 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Health practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the work-relatedness of burnout. To gather the most reliable information regarding burnout diagnosis and recognition in Europe, we used an 8-item standard questionnaire sent by e-mail to occupational health specialists identified via the Network on the Coordination and Harmonization of European Occupational Cohorts (OMEGA-NET) within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action. Participation rate was 100%, and the questionnaire was completed for 37 countries. In 14 (38%) countries burnout syndrome can be acknowledged as an occupational disease. However, the only country included burnout on the list of occupational diseases. The results showed a high variability in burnout diagnosis, in assessment of its work-relatedness, and in conditions allowing compensation of patients. These results reflect a lack of graded evidence on burnout and its determinants. The ongoing research on burnout conducted in the frame of the OMEGA-NET COST Action should be helpful through facilitating standardization of both existing and new data on burnout, a priority outcome requiring harmonization.

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  • Tim VAHLE-HINZ
    Article ID: 2018-0186
    Published: February 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2019
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    Workplace incivility is a low-intensity, counterproductive work behavior associated with negative health outcomes and organizational consequences (e.g., turnover intention). In the present study, I used a daily diary design to investigate the short-term within-person effects of workplace incivility on work-related rumination. Time pressure was included in the present study to underline the importance of workplace incivility for off-work ruminative thoughts beyond the known effects of a stressful workday. Additionally, I propose mood at the end of the workday as a mediator for the proposed relationships. The results of my study corroborate the existence of the daily within-person and the more stable weekly between-person effect of workplace incivility on off-work ruminative thoughts. These results suggest that the experience of short-term and fluctuating workplace incivility has an impact on off-work ruminative thinking even when controlling for the known effects of time pressure. With regard to my proposed mediational effect, my hypothesis was not confirmed. In an additional analysis, however, mediation was confirmed when time pressure was excluded from the model. Further, the within-person relationship between time pressure and work-related rumination was mediated by mood.

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  • Antonella MANSI, Fabio BOCCUNI, Sergio IAVICOLI
    Article ID: 2018-0197
    Published: February 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2019
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    Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) represent a frequent complication for hospitalized patients and more rarely for workers. In recent years, substantial scientific evidence has been reached regarding the role played by the inanimate surfaces, especially those touched in patient-care areas, in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, it is essential to find new collective protective measures to minimize microbial contamination in healthcare facilities, thereby preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. We present an overview of the major nano-enabled AntiMicrobial Coatings (AMCs) which may be used as collective protective measures in healthcare setting, discussing also some aspects related to their effectiveness and safety. AMCs may be classified within three groups on base of their mechanism of action: surfaces releasing active compound, contact-killing surfaces and anti-adhesive surfaces. To date, little information is available on the effectiveness of AMCs to reduce the risk of HAIs since the most of studies do not reach conclusive results on their beneficial effects. Moreover, the lack of standard protocols for assessing antimicrobial efficacy and poor data about the interaction between AMCs and disinfectants prevent their placing on the market. Further studies are needed for assessing risks and benefits of AMCs as collective protective measures in healthcare setting.

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  • Takeyasu KAKAMU, Tomoo HIDAKA, Tomohiro KUMAGAI, Takanobu JINNOUCHI, S ...
    Article ID: 2018-0094
    Published: February 22, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aims of the present study were to investigate what kind of anxiety radiation decontamination workers have, and to analyze what factors are associated to presence or absence of their anxieties. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted, which included 10 anxiety items. A logistic regression model was then used to determine what factors were related to increased anxiety. Of 531 workers who completed the questionnaire, 477 (91.6%) complained of at least one of the 8 anxiety items. The most common anxiety item was job security (41.8%), and the least common item was working hours (6.0%). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the most common causes of related to presence of anxiety was heat illness and the most common causes of related to absence of anxiety was having someone available for consultation. The current study revealed the kinds of anxiety, and the factors associated with presence or absence of each anxiety among radiation decontamination workers. These results provide important implications for the improvement of educational content and occupational health management for radiation decontamination workers in the future.

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  • Alfredo COPERTARO, Massimo BRACCI
    Article ID: 2018-0173
    Published: February 22, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2019
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    The master clock of the biological rhythm, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, synchronizes the molecular biological clock found in every cell of most peripheral tissues. The human circadian rhythm is largely based on the light-dark cycle. In night shift workers, alteration of the cycle and inversion of the sleep-wake rhythm can result in disruption of the biological clock and induce adverse health effects. This paper offers an overview of the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the circadian rhythm and of the health risks that are associated with its perturbation in shift and night workers. The Occupational Physician should screen shift and night workers for clinical symptoms related to the perturbation of the biological clock and consider preventive strategies to reducethe associated health risks.

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  • Goh ICHIHARA, Takehisa MATSUKAWA, Fumihiko KITAMURA, Kazuhito YOKOYAMA
    Article ID: 2017-0218
    Published: February 13, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 13, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In Japan, the agricultural working environment has undergone significant changes from self-employment to enterprises and employees. As the structure of the agricultural industry changes, there has been a growing interest in occupational health and safety because agriculture is a hazardous industry. However, the public is not aware of the actual situation regarding occupational accidents in agricultural enterprises because most Japanese farmers are not necessarily required to report occupational accidents. The aim of this study is to explore the risk factors regarding occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,606 employees at 101 agricultural enterprises in Japan. Information on occupational accidents, personal characteristics, and working conditions was collected by questionnaires. A total of 337 valid responses were obtained. Of these respondents, 104 (30.9%) experienced occupational accidents. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that permanent employment (OR 3.67, 95% CI, 1.84–7.33), pesticide use (OR 2.61, 95% CI, 1.52–4.47), and long working hours (OR 1.76, 95% CI, 1.15–2.68) were associated with the risk of occupational accidents. This study revealed the risk factors for occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. It is suggested that work-hour restrictions for permanent employees might contribute to reducing occupational accidents.

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  • Ty LEES, Jaymen L ELLIOTT, Simon GUNNING, Phillip J NEWTON, Tapan RAI, ...
    Article ID: 2018-0088
    Published: February 13, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 13, 2019
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    Law enforcement is inherently stressful, and police officers are particularly vulnerable to mental and physical disorders. As such, researchers are currently assessing intervention strategies that may combat or manage these psychological, physical and mental issues. To review most recent information regarding anxiety, PTSD, and sleepiness and fatigue and identify the interventions and treatments proposed to overcome work related stressors and associated mental illnesses inflicting law enforcement officers. The EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were canvassed for articles investigating anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleepiness, and fatigue. Initial article selections were made based on title, whilst final inclusion was informed by a full critical appraisal with respect to the primary and secondary effects. The systematic search returned 363 records, of which 183 were unique. Following screening, 43 records were included in the final review. The included literature assessed the efficacy of several interventions, and provided a number of recommendations regarding interventions, and policy. Moreover, literature indicates that police officers benefit from interventions targeting work-related stress and potential psychological disorders, if these interventions are continuous. Furthermore, larger controlled studies are required to further elucidate the benefits of psychosocial intervention in law enforcement.

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  • Ami NAKAYAMA, Toshihito MITSUI, Tomonori NAKATA, Hiroyuki MABUCHI, Koi ...
    Article ID: 2018-0183
    Published: February 01, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Our aim was to determine differences in thermal comfort during simulated one-day parcel home delivery between summer and winter. Six young healthy males performed experiments in summer (~31˚C) and winter (~8˚C). After baseline measurement in a chamber, subjects drove a truck to a prespecified location for outside measurements. They performed 4 sets of 100-m walk with carrying 5-kg plate during the first 50-m walk at 100 m/min, separated by 7-min driving in each of the morning and the afternoon. Subjects could ingest water ad libitum in outside and set the cockpit temperature by themselves during driving. Thermal sensation and comfort were recorded using a subjective scale at the first and the last sets of each morning and afternoon session, while esophageal temperature (Tes) was monitored (thermocouples). Body weight was measured before and the end of experiment. We found that 1) whole-body comfort decreased in summer and the decrease was greater than winter with higher Tes and 2) changes in body weight were 0.7 and 0.3 kg through whole day in summer and winter, respectively. In summary, thermal comfort during working worsened in summer, possibly related with higher core temperature and greater decrease in body weight.

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  • Jindarat CHAIARD, Jirawan DEELUEA, Benjamas SUKSATIT, Wanpen SONGKHAM
    Article ID: 2018-0168
    Published: January 25, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to describe sleep quality and explore factors associated with poor sleep quality in Thai intercity bus drivers. A cross-sectional design was employed with a sample of intercity bus drivers from 4 major bus transportation companies. The Thai-PSQI was used to identify sleep quality, and the Thai Berlin Questionnaire used to assess sleep apnea risk. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 338 surveys were analyzed. All bus drivers were male; almost 66% of the bus drivers were defined as poor sleepers, and 18.1% were assessed as being at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Working night shifts (OR=20.6), rotating day or night shifts (OR=17.0), alcohol consumption (OR=2.7), being married (OR=3.1), and not exercising (OR=2.3) were related to poor sleep quality. The majority of theThai intercity bus drivers in our study reported poor sleep qualityindicating that action is required at both company and individual levels to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles and improvement of working conditions.

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  • Maria U. KOTTWITZ, Isabel B. PFISTER, Achim ELFERING, Steffen E. SCHUM ...
    Article ID: 2018-0008
    Published: January 23, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2019
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    In the globalized and rapidly evolving work environment, deficiencies in job design are a common reason that employees must sometimes complete tasks that are not directly connected to their occupational role. Individuals with a clear vision of their professional role and duties in particular, such as psychologists, might consider such tasks as an offense to self. According to the “Stress-as-Offense-to-Self” (SOS) concept, so-called “illegitimate tasks” do not respect a person’s professional identity – threatening the self through disrespect. We investigated perceived appreciation as an underlying mechanism mediating between illegitimate tasks and reduced job satisfaction after one year through three studies conducted in two European countries. Using data from 50 psychologists who graduated from a German university, Study 1 revealed that perceived appreciation explained the relationship between illegitimate tasks and job satisfaction after one year. Studies 2 and 3 confirmed this finding using data from 67 and 183 Swiss employees working in fields of psychology. In particular, illegitimate tasks affected the perception of appreciation immediately and in the long term, which in turn affected the psychologists’ job satisfaction (contagion model). Our results illustrate the importance of perceived appreciation as a mechanism that mediates between illegitimate tasks and job satisfaction of psychologists.

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  • Masaka Blandine LUNGOSI, Basilua Andre MUZEMBO, Nlombi Charles MBENDI, ...
    Article ID: 2018-0166
    Published: January 23, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2019
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    We aimed to determine HBV prevalence and risk factors for health care workers (HCWs) to contract HBV infection in a referral hospital in Congo DR. From October 2015 to August 2016, we recruited 97 HCWs (55 males and 42 females, aged 41.2 ± 10 yr) from Kisantu St. Luke’s Hospital, a Congolese referral hospital located in the province of Kongo Central. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers using ELISA. A questionnaire was used to record the HCWs’ demographics, medical histories, and risk factors. The overall prevalence of exposure to HBV infection [HBsAg+, and/or hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)+] was 56.7% (55/97). HBsAg positivity was found in 18.6% (18/97) of the HCWs whereas 29.9% (29/97) were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 8.2% (8/97) of the HCWs tested positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Being a physician [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8 (95% CI: 1.34–12.23)], a laboratory technician [OR= 3.35 (95% CI: 1.35–5.21)], and having multiple sexual partnerships [OR= 3.05 (95% CI: 1.13–9.09)] were found to be factors associated with HBV infection. Exposure to HBV is common among HCWs at Kisantu St. Luke’s Hospital. Isolated HBsAg was also prevalent among them. There is a high risk that HBV could be spread to others. Therefore, there is an urgent need for HBV screening, treatment, and vaccination policies.

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  • Ana Vanessa BATALLER-CERVERO, Juan RABAL-PELAY, Luis Enrique ROCHE-SER ...
    Article ID: 2018-0179
    Published: January 16, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in manufacturing workers. Several strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the pain and/or improve functionality. Among them, lumbar supports are a common solution prescribed for lumbar pain relief. Most of the studies in the literature only consider subjective sensations of the workers for evaluation assessment. This study applies biomechanical tests (a flexion-relaxation test and a functional movement evaluation test) to analyse the effectiveness of flexible lumbar supports in functionality and disability versus placebo intervention, consisting of kinesiotape placed on the low back without any stress. 28 workers participated in the study, randomised in control and intervention groups with a two months’ intervention. None of the biomechanical tests showed statistical differences in between-groups pre-post changes. No benefits of wearing a flexible lumbar support during the workday have been found in these assembly-line workers versus placebo intervention.

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  • Hisayoshi OHTA, Yonggang QI, Kenichi OHBA, Tatsushi TOYOOKA, Rui-Sheng ...
    Article ID: 2018-0177
    Published: December 29, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 29, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The role of metallothionein (MT)-like cadmium (Cd) binding protein (MTLCdBP) in protecting the testes against Cd toxicity was examined. In the acute Cd exposure treatment, cadmium chloride was intraperitoneally injected at 2 mg Cd/kg to Wistar male rats. In the chronic Cd toxicity treatments, 20 mg Cd/kg/day was orally administered for 5 days a week for 5, 10, and 15 weeks. MT (-I,-II) and MTLCdBP were measured using ELISA and Cd-Hem methods, respectively. Testicular tissues were immunostained with antibodies of MT-I,-II, MT-III, and MTLCdBP. Expression of HO1, OGG, iNOS, COX2, and p53 was measured by RT-PCR. Cd concentration in the testis increased dose-dependently in response to Cd exposure. MTLCdBP concentration increased markedly with increasing Cd accumulation. Significant increases in expression of iNOS, HO1, COX2, and OGG1 were observed in the acute exposure treatment. In the chronic oral administration group, expression of MT-I, MT-II, MT-III, iNOS, HO1, and COX2 did not change. Positive immunostaining of MTLCdBP was observed in testicular interstitial tissue. In the testis protected from Cd toxicity, MTLCdBP induction increased significantly with increasing Cd accumulation. Our results suggest that MTLCdBP plays an important role in protecting the testis against Cd toxicity.

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  • Peter BRÖDE, Bernhard KAMPMANN
    Article ID: 2018-0204
    Published: December 29, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 29, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The standard ISO 8996 provides methods for the determination of metabolic rate from measured oxygen consumption (MVO2), as well as simplified estimation algorithms based on heart rate (MHR). We quantified the accuracy of these methods by comparing MHR with MVO2 measured in 373 climatic chamber experiments under different workloads and widely varying heat stress conditions. While our results confirmed the 5% accuracy level for MVO2, MHR considerably overestimated MVO2 due to the rise in core temperature concomitantly increasing heart rate by approximately 30 bpm/°C resulting in an overall error of 43%. After individually correcting for this bias the accuracy was 10–15% as stipulated by the standard. Thus, methods correcting for the thermal component of heart rate, e.g. by introducing intermittent resting periods of sufficient length of at least five minutes when investigating heat stress at workplaces, should become a mandatory element in the ongoing revision of the relevant standards.

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  • Jessica STANHOPE, Dino PISANIELLO, Rebecca TOOHER, Philip WEINSTEIN
    Article ID: 2018-0065
    Published: December 14, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recent reviews of musicians’ musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) have reported heterogeneity in the outcomes reported and data collection tools used, making it difficult to compare and synthesise findings. The purpose of this present review was to improve the consistency of future research, by documenting the outcomes reported in recent studies of musicians’ MSS and the data collection tools used. All English language, peer-reviewed studies, published 2007–2016 that reported musicians’ self-reported MSS outcomes were identified. Details of the types of outcomes reported and the tools used were extracted, and synthesised descriptively. A range of MSS outcomes were reported, including MSS with a temporal relationship to activities performed, and the consequences of symptoms. Only 24% of studies used standardised questionnaires, with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) being the most commonly used. To improve the homogeneity of outcomes and data collection tools when investigating musicians’ MSS, we recommend using the NMQ, where appropriate. Recall periods of 12-months and 7-days are the most appropriate for prevalence, and 7-day recall periods for ratings. Importantly, outcomes and the tools used to collect data should be reported in sufficient detail to ensure that the study can be replicated, critiqued, and accurately interpreted.

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  • Mineko BABA, Genta MIYAMA, Daisuke SUGIYAMA, Masahito HITOSUGI
    Article ID: 2018-0104
    Published: December 14, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Sudden illness while driving has been identified as a major cause of vehicle collisions, particularly among taxi drivers. However, no previous studies have examined the factors contributing to the occurrence of health-related vehicle collisions. The current study aimed to identify the risk factors causing health-related vehicle collisions among taxi drivers, and to inform preventative interventions. A cross-sectional survey involving a written anonymous questionnaire was conducted for company-employed taxi drivers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. A total of 1,739 drivers returned questionnaires. Drivers were classified into those who had experienced collisions or near-miss incidents caused by health problems (Event group), and those who had not (Non-event group). According to a multivariable logistic regression analysis, being unable to take vacation time (odds ratio [OR] 4.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2–9.58), having chronic diseases (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02–2.23), taking insufficient vacation time (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.19–2.79), and difficulty reporting poor health conditions (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.36–3.87) were significant factors for the likelihood of an event. Support for drivers to maintain well-balanced control of illnesses and improvement of working environments could prevent health-related events while driving.

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  • Rumi SEKO, Miyuki KAWADO, Sayana SAITO, Takuma SHIBUYA, Miho MIYAMOTO, ...
    Article ID: 2018-0112
    Published: December 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 08, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Taking action in response to health examination results is important to stay healthy. We aimed to investigate the associations between occupation, employment type and company size, and having a health examination and taking action in response to the results among Japanese employees. We focused on three particular actions by employees in response to health examination results: paying attention to one's health, receiving health guidance, and visiting a medical institution. We used anonymous data from the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of Japan, a self-administered nationwide questionnaire survey. The data of 23,963 employees (12,938 male and 11,025 female) aged 20–64 years were analyzed using logistic regression models adjusted by covariates. There were significant changes in odds ratios for receiving a health examination by occupation, employment type and company size. We found significant odds ratios for receiving health guidance by occupation and company size, but there was almost no significant association with paying attention to one’s health and visiting a medical institution. These results confirmed that receiving a health examination was associated with occupational factors, and suggested that receiving health guidance after health examination results was associated with occupation and company size.

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  • Toshio KAWAI, Haruhiko SAKURAI, Masayuki IKEDA
    Article ID: 2018-0170
    Published: December 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 08, 2018
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    This study aimed to examine quantitative relation between ethylbenzene (EB) in air (EB-A) and un-metabolized EB in urine (EB-U) for biological monitoring of occupational EB exposure by urinalysis for EB. In total, 49 men in furniture production factories participated in the study. Time-weighted average EB-A was monitored by diffusive sampling. Urinalysis for EB was conducted by head-space gas-chromatography with end-of-shift samples. Data were subjected to regression analysis for statistical evaluation. A geometric mean (GM) and the maximum (Max) EB-A levels were 2.1 and 45.5 ppm, respectively. GM and Max for EB-U (observed values) were 4.6 and 38.7 μg/l. A significant linear correlation was observed. The regression equation was Y=3.1+0.73X where X is EB-A (ppm) and Y is EB-U (μg/l) (r=0.91, p<0.01). The significant correlation between EB-A and EB-U coupled with a small intercept suggests that biological monitoring of occupational EB exposure is possible by analysis for un-metabolized EB in end-of-shift urine samples. Further validation studies (including those on applicability to women) are envisaged. The feasibility should be examined for biological monitoring and the applicability of the equation among the workers exposed to EB at low levels.

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  • Charlotte C. GUPTA, Alison M. COATES, Jill DORRIAN, Siobhan BANKS
    Article ID: 2018-0147
    Published: November 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 08, 2018
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    Shiftwork leads to altered eating patterns, with workers often eating foods at all times across the 24h period. Strategies to reduce the burden of shiftwork on the workers should be prioritised and altering these eating patterns is an important area for change. This narrative review examines the current evidence on the individual and environmental factors influencing the eating behaviours of shiftworkers. A systematic search was conducted and yielded 62 articles. These were split into four themes that influence eating patterns; When shiftworkers eat, What type of foods shiftworkers eat, Where the food is sourced from, and Why shiftworkers choose to eat on shift. Irregular working hours was the biggest influence on when workers ate on shift, shift-type was the biggest influence on what workers ate, the majority of food was sourced from canteens and cafeterias, and socialising with colleagues was the biggest reason why workers chose to eat. While more research is needed to explore multiple industries and shift-types, and to investigate the ideal size, type and timing of food on shift, this review has highlighted that future research into shiftworker eating needs to adopt an integrative approach and consider the different individual and social contexts that influence eating patterns.

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  • Roger O. KOLLOCK, Madeline LYONS, Gabe SANDERS, Davis HALE
    Article ID: 2018-0086
    Published: November 03, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 03, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Injures are common in workers engaged in tactical occupations. Research suggests that the functional movement screen (FMS) may provide practitioners the ability to identify tactical athletes most at risk for injury. However, there exists controversy as to the effectiveness of the FMS as a tool for classifying injury risk. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to determine the predictive value of the FMS in determining injury risk in workers engaged in tactical occupations. We searched MEDLINE, Military & Government Collection (EBSCO), PubMed and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Technical Information Center databases for articles published between January 2007 and April 2017. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Multiple random-effects model meta-analyses were conducted, with an odds ratio as the effects metric. FMS cut-off score, occupation, injury type and sex were used as moderators for the analyses. The odds of injury were greatest for tactical athletes with FMS scores ≤14. Personnel scoring ≤14 had almost 2 times the odds of injury as compared to those scoring >14. However, the magnitude of the effects were small; thus the relationship between FMS cut scores and injury prediction does not support its use as a sole predictor of injury.

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  • Taleb ASKARIPOOR, Majid MOTAMEDZADE, Rostam GOLMOHAMMADI, Maryam FARHA ...
    Article ID: 2018-0030
    Published: October 27, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Disrupting sleepiness and fatigue during the post-lunch dip by environmental factors may result in a decrease in human errors and accidents, and enhance job performance. Recent studies have shown that both red white light as well as blue white light can have a positive effect on human alertness and mental functioning. In the present study, the light intervention was evaluated for its effectiveness on alleviating the post-lunch dip. Twenty healthy volunteers experienced 117 min of four light conditions preceded by a 13-min initial dim light while performing a continuous performance test (CPT) and undergoing recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG): blue-enriched white light (12000 K, 500 lx, BWL), red saturated white light (2700 K, 500 lx, RWL), normal white light (4000 K, 500 lx, NWL), and dim light (<5 lx, DL) conditions. Other outcome measures were subjective sleepiness, mood, and performance tests (working memory, divided attention, and inhibitory capacity). We found that exposure to both BWL and RWL conditions decreased the lower alpha-band power compared to the NWL and DL conditions. No significant differences were observed in subjective sleepiness and mental performance during sustained attention, working memory, and inhibitory capacity tasks between NWL, RWL, and BWL conditions. The present findings suggest that both RWL and BWL, compared to NWL condition, can improve the physiological correlates of alertness in EEG measurements. However, these changes did not translate to improvements in task performance and subjective alertness.

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  • Melahat UZEL ŞENER, Ceprail ŞIMŞEK, Şeref ÖZKARA, Hale EVRAN, İlke BUR ...
    Article ID: 2018-0068
    Published: October 19, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for screening and diagnosis of occupational lung diseases. We evaluated the association of ICOERD with the International Labor Organization (ILO) classification and respiratory functions in pneumoconiosis. Chest x-rays of patients with pneumoconiosis were classified with ILO and ICOERD. Using HRCT, irregular opacity, pleural pathology, and emphysema was detected in 78, 19, and 53 patients, and using chest x-rays in 47, 4, and 14 patients, respectively. There was a significant correlation between ILO categories and ICOERD grades. There was a negative correlation between ILO categories and FEV1% and FVC%, whereas, ICOERD grades were not correlated with FEV1% and FVC%. HRCT was superior to chest x-rays to detect pneumoconiosis in early stage, but not in evaluating pulmonary functions.

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  • Sally Lee PERRIN, Jillian DORRIAN, Charlotte GUPTA, Stephanie CENTOFAN ...
    Article ID: 2018-0070
    Published: October 19, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Flight attendants experience circadian misalignment and disrupted sleep and eating patterns. This survey study examined working time, sleep, and eating frequency in a sample (n=21, 4 males, 17 females) of Australian flight attendants (mean age=41.8 y, SD=12.0 y, mean BMI=23.8 kg/m2, SD=4.1 kg/m2). Respondents indicated frequencies of snack, meal, and caffeine consumption during their last shift. Reported sleep duration on workdays (mean=4.6 h, SD=1.9 h) was significantly lower than on days off (M=7.2 h, SD=1.2 h, p<0.001), and significantly lower than perceived sleep need (M=8.1 h, SD=0.8 h, p<0.001). Food intake was distributed throughout shifts and across the 24 h period, with eating patterns incongruent with biological eating periods. Time available, food available, and work breaks were the most endorsed reasons for food consumption. Caffeine use and reports of gastrointestinal disturbance were common. Working time disrupts sleep and temporal eating patterns in flight attendants and further research into nutritional and dietary-related countermeasures may be beneficial to improving worker health and reducing circadian disruption.

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  • Manoj Kumar SAIN, Makkhan Lal MEENA
    Article ID: 2018-0096
    Published: October 19, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study is aimed to investigate the musculoskeletal issues and association of risk–factors with these problems among manual brick kiln workers. A modified Nordic Questionnaire was administered among 376 traditional brick kiln workers to collect data. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between musculoskeletal problems and risk–factors. Majority of workers (76.19%) involved in mould evacuating task reported wrist issues whereas lower back issues were reported by 62.35% of spading task workers. Age was a factor associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in the majority of the body regions. Gender was significantly associated with lower back (OR=3.71, CI: 1.51–9.11) MSDs. Spading task was associated with the wrist (OR=2.42, CI: 51.03–5.66), and lower back (OR=3.97, CI: 1.75–8.98) problems. Mould filling was a contributing factor for the wrist (OR=4.27, CI: 1.81–10.09) and knee (OR=6.88, CI: 2.40–19.70) issues. MSDs in wrist (OR=12.22, CI: 4.82–30.98) and fingers (OR=3.57, CI: 1.23–10.36) were significant in mould evacuating workers. Workers having less than five years of experience were less prone to the neck (OR=0.03, CI: 0.00–0.72) and upper back (OR=0.08, CI: 0.01–0.76) MSDs. For prevention of problems, ergonomic interventions such as workers’ training, use of protecting aids, modification in hand tools and work practices are needed.

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  • Ko MATSUDAIRA, Masaya TAKAHASHI, Mika KAWAGUCHI, Ayumi HAMAGUCHI, Yuri ...
    Article ID: 2018-0157
    Published: October 19, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The majority of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) suffer from chronic pain. Psychosocial factors play an important role in the chronicity of LBP. To explore the risk factors for chronic disabling LBP in detail, we assessed its various risk factors in Japanese workers, using data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. Data were drawn from a 1-year follow-up of 20–59-year-old workers who participated in the CUPID study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed various factors, including individual characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related or other psychosocial factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between these factors and chronic disabling LBP. Of 198 participants, 35 (17.7%) had chronic disabling LBP during the 1-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction effect of the two factors, expectation of LBP problems and excessive working hours (≥60 hours per week), was associated with chronic disabling LBP. Chronic disabling LBP was present in 42.5% of participants with both of these two risk factors, whereas it was present in 11.8% of participants without these risk factors. In conclusion, among various factors, the combination of two psychosocial factors was particularly associated with chronic disabling LBP.

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  • Siyeon KIM, Do-Hee KIM, Hyo-Hyun LEE, Joo-Young LEE
    Article ID: 2018-0063
    Published: September 11, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 11, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of firefighters’ heat-related illness (HRI) in the line of duty with relation to resting/working hours and the behaviour of taking off PPE during rest periods based on nationwide survey (N=674). The results showed that 74.8% of firefighters experienced HRI symptoms and 5% of firefighters suffered from symptoms of HRI 20 times or more in a year. This study also showed a statistically significant correlation between working hours and removing PPE with the experience of HRI symptoms (P<0.05). In addition, removing PPE except the helmet was correlated with resting hours (P<0.001; Gloves: P=0.051), which indicates removing PPE is related to resting time. This study revealed that firefighters routinely experienced mild HRI symptoms and the fatalities were just a tiny fraction. It is also emphasized that attention should be given on the significant role of taking off PPE during rest and on the standardized firefighters’ rehabilitation followed by its application.

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  • Hsieh-Ching CHEN, Yung-Ping LIU, Wei-Hsien HONG, You-Chuan LIN, Chi-Yu ...
    Article ID: 2018-0039
    Published: August 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 30, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To reduce the muscular exertion of an operator wiring terminal blocks on a vertical plane, a chair with a unique back that can be used as a back support or arm support is proposed in this study. A digital version of the chair was first developed based on anthropometric data and tested with a digital anthropometric subject using the Jack software before the physical chair was developed. To evaluate the effects of the physical chair, an experiment of wiring terminal blocks was conducted with 12 subjects to test whether the use of the arm support can reduce muscular exertion. The results showed that (1) exertion on the anterior deltoid, upper trapezium, and erector spinae muscles decreased with decrease in terminal block height; (2) using the arm support reduced exertion on the anterior deltoid and upper trapezium muscles; and (3) the subjects reported less self-perceived fatigue in the wrist, elbow, and shoulder regions when the arm support was used. These results confirm that the proposed chair can reduce muscular workload in the shoulder muscle over a proper range of working heights. However, using the arm support may restrict certain working postures and lead to force generation in upper extremity muscles.

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  • Ehab Salah ESHAK
    Article ID: 2018-0091
    Published: August 11, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 11, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An important factor for which work and family compete is time. Due to lack of evidence, I investigated the associations between work-family conflict (assessed by the National Study of Midlife Development in the US) and sleep disorders (assessed by the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study included 1,021 Egyptians aged 18–59 years. Both work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) were associated with reduced sleep quantity. Moreover, high WFC was associated with sleep disorders; the multivariable ORs (95% CIs) were 2.32 (1.63–3.30) in high versus low WFC, 1.09 (0.79–1.49) in high versus low FWC and 2.41 (1.52–3.83) in high both WFC and FWC versus low both WFC and FWC. Waking up too early with inability to fall asleep again and waking up tired after the usual amount of sleep were the most common sleep disturbances with high WFC; while insignificant increased risks for waking up several times per night and waking up tired after the usual amount of sleep were observed with high FWC. The study findings suggest the need for occupational and social health promotion programs to help men and women in labor force reach a balanced interaction between work and family life in order to reduce sleep complaints.

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  • Line KRANE, Stein KNARDAHL, Morten Birkeland NIELSEN
    Article ID: 2018-0124
    Published: August 11, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 11, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study determines whether dispositional optimism moderates the relationship between role conflict and the risk of disability retirement. The study was based on a combination of self-report survey questionnaire data on role conflict and dispositional optimism with official register data on disability benefits from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. The sample comprised 14,501 Norwegian employees from various occupations and industries. Role conflict was significantly related to higher risk (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.19–1.53), whereas optimism was associated with decreased risk (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88), of disability retirement. Optimism did not modify the effect on role conflict on disability retirement. Having an optimistic life orientation decreases the risk of disability retirement in general, but does not protect against the detrimental effects of role conflict at the workplace. As optimism is a malleable personality characteristic, organizations may benefit from interventions that help employees experience daily events more positively.

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  • Hiroko MOMOTANI, Yasumasa OTSUKA
    Article ID: 2018-0019
    Published: August 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The study objectives were to develop a Japanese-language version of the Feedback Environment Scale (FES) that is used, mainly in the West, as a multifaceted instrument to evaluate the workplace feedback environment, and to test its reliability and validity in the Japanese workplace. The FES (comprising Supervisor and Coworker FES) was translated into Japanese and reviewed through a back-translation process involving the original author to produce the FES-J. Data on 416 individuals working at Japanese companies obtained through internet research were used to investigate FES-J reliability (internal consistency) and validity (confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.68–0.92 for the Supervisor FES-J and 0.66–0.88 for the Coworker FES-J. The AIC scores and fit indices were χ2(417)=1396.655 (p<0.001), AIC=1618.655, CFI=0.900 and RMSEA=0.075 for the Supervisor FES-J and χ2(391)=1859.302 (p<0.001), AIC=2069.302, CFI=0.839 and RMSEA=0.095 for the Coworker FES-J. Correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between both FES-J scales and feedback-seeking behavior, LMX/TMX, job satisfaction, and work engagement, and a negative relationship with irritability, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. This study showed a certain level of reliability and validity for the FES-J, suggesting that this is an appropriate scale for evaluating the feedback environment in Japanese workplaces.

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  • Christopher WATSON, Olga TROYNIKOV, Helen LINGARD
    Article ID: 2018-0040
    Published: August 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) is mandatory in hazardous industrial workplaces, but can increase thermophysiological strain, causing fatigue, reduced productivity, illness and injury. We systematically reviewed the literature on PPC and heat stress, focusing on research relating to working conditions of high temperature and humidity. PPC must protect industrial workers from a wide variety of hazards, including sun damage, abrasion, chemical spills and electrical burns; these competing demands inevitably compromise thermal performance. Fiber type, textile material construction and treatment need to be considered alongside garment fit and construction to design functional PPC providing wearers with adequate protection and comfort. Several approaches to materials and PPC testing – objective benchtop evaluation, mathematical modelling, and physiological testing – can be combined to provide high-quality thermal and vapor performance data. Our review provides a foundation and directions for further research in low-level risk PPC, where current research in fabrics and clothing in this category is very limited, and will help designers and manufacturers create industrial workwear with improved thermal management characteristics.

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  • Liqun GAO, Maolin DU, Jiayi LI, Neng ZHAO, Ying YANG, Chao DONG, Xiao ...
    Article ID: 2018-0057
    Published: August 08, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study assessed the relationship between occupation and Intracerebral Hemorrhage-related deaths and compared the differences in ICH-related deaths rates between the eastern and midwestern regions of Inner Mongolia. We used the case-control method. Cases included Intracerebral Hemorrhage-related deaths that occurred from 2009 to 2012 in Inner Mongolia while controls included non-circulatory system disease deaths that occurred during the same period. Odds ratios (ORs) for Intracerebral Hemorrhage-related deaths were calculated using logistic regression analysis, estimated according to occupation, and adjusted for marital status and age. The Intracerebral Hemorrhage mortality rate in the eastern regions (125.19/100000) was nearly 3 times higher than that in the midwestern regions (45.31/100000). ORs for agriculture-livestock workers, service professionals and general workers, professional workers and senior officials were in descending order. The age-adjusted OR for Intracerebral Hemorrhage-related deaths was lowest in unmarried men senior officials (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.99). The Intracerebral Hemorrhage mortality rate in the eastern regions was much higher than that of the midwestern regions, since about 90% of Intracerebral Hemorrhage-related deaths in the eastern regions were those of agriculture-livestock workers who has the largest labor intensity of any other occupation assessed.

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  • Ichiro HIGASHIKUBO, Heihachiro ARITO, Yoko EITAKI, Kenji ANDO, Akihiro ...
    Article ID: 2018-0116
    Published: August 02, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 02, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to evaluate personal exposures of 27 workers to indium compounds as “total” dust and its “respirable” fraction in their breathing zones at 3 Japanese indium plants. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) indium concentrations of personal exposure to dust collected in sampling periods of 6 hours or longer were determined by ICP-MS. The arithmetic means of exposure concentrations were 0.095 mg indium (In)/m3, when sampled as total dust, and 0.059 mg In/m3, as respirable fraction. ACGIH’s TLV-TWA of 0.1 mg In/m3 for total particulate matter and Acceptable Exposure Concentration Limit (AECL) of 3×10-4 mg In/m3 for the respirable fraction notified by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare were used to evaluate the exposure concentrations. Twenty-five out of 27 workers were exposed to indium concentrations lower than TLV-TWA, while all of the workers were exposed to the indium concentrations higher than AECL. We noted that there was a large discrepancy between the two occupational exposure limits referred to in this report, and these differences were attributed to the sampling strategies and health effects used as the prevention targets. Carcinogenicity of the respirable fraction of indium-containing particulates was considered in setting AECL, whereas it was not in ACGIH’s TLV.

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  • Konstantina P. POULIANITI, George HAVENITH, Andreas D. FLOURIS
    Article ID: 2018-0075
    Published: July 28, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: July 28, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The assessment of energy cost (EC) at the workplace remains a key topic in occupational health due to the ever-increasing prevalence of work-related issues. This review provides a detailed list of EC estimations in jobs/tasks included in tourism, agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. A total of 61 studies evaluated the EC of 1667 workers while performing a large number of tasks related to each one of the aforementioned five industries. Agriculture includes the most energy-demanding jobs (males: 6.0 ± 2.5 kcal/min; females: 2.9 ± 1.0 kcal/min). Jobs in the construction industry were the 2nd most demanding (males: 4.9 ± 1.6 kcal/min; no data for females). The industry with the 3rd highest EC estimate was manufacturing (males: 3.8 ± 1.1 kcal/min; females: 3.0 ± 1.3 kcal/min). Transportation presented relatively moderate EC estimates (males: 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min; no data for females). Tourism jobs demonstrated the lowest EC values (2.5 ± 0.9 kcal/min for males and females). It is hoped that this information will aid the development of future instruments and guidelines aiming to protect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. Future research should provide updated EC estimates within a wide spectrum of occupational settings taking into account the sex, age, and physiological characteristics of the workers as well as the individual characteristics of each workplace.

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  • Susy PURNAWATI, Norito KAWAKAMI, Akihito SHIMAZU, Dewa Putu SUTJANA, N ...
    Type: Field Report
    Article ID: 2015-0260
    Published: 2016
    [Advance publication] Released: August 06, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    RETRACTION The following article withdrrawn due to the request of the authors on December 17,2016.

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  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013e
    Published: October 06, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
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  • Li FANG, Shu-Hui FANG, Yun-Ho CHUNG, Chin-Lin FANG
    Article ID: 2014-0013
    Published: May 07, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.
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  • Juha OKSA, Soile PAASOVAARA, Tommi OLLILA
    Article ID: MS1262
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This study evaluated whether cold-induced deterioration in neuromuscular function can be restored by intermittently increasing the workload. We examined the level of muscular strain, agonist-antagonist co-activation, the occurrence of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency in wrist flexor and extensor muscles at 21°C (TN) and 4°C (C10) with a 10%MVC workload. During second exposure to 4°C (C50) the workload was increased every fourth minute to 50%MVC. The results indicated that muscular strain and co-activation was the highest and the amount of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency the lowest at C10. By intermittently increasing the workload at C50 we were able to reduce muscular strain and co-activation (p<0.05) and induce a trend like increase in EMG gaps and enhance neuromuscular efficiency in relation to C10 (NS). It may be concluded that intermittently increasing the workload, i.e. breaking the monotonous work cycle was able to partially restore neuromuscular function.
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  • Daniela PELCLOVÁ, Zdenka FENCLOVÁ, Stepánka VLCKOVÁ, Jindriska LEBEDOV ...
    Article ID: MS1274
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and were increased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of the patients with pneumoconiosis. However the possible influence of extra-pulmonary disorders on the EBC markers is not known. Therefore in parallel with EBC, LTs’ levels in the plasma and urine were measured in patients with pneumoconiosis (45x asbestos exposure, 37x silica exposure) and in 27 controls. Individual LTs B4, C4, D4 and E4 were measured by liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In EBC, LT D4 and LT E4 were increased in both groups of patients (p<0.001 and p<0.05), comparing with the controls. Both LT B4 and cysteinyl LTs were elevated in asbestos-exposed subjects (p<0.05). Asbestosis with more severe radiological signs (s1/s2-t3/u2) and lung functions impairment has shown higher cysteinyl LTs and LT C4 in the EBC (p<0.05) than mild asbestosis (s1/s0-s1/s1). In addition, in the subjects with asbestosis, cysteinyl LTs in EBC correlated with TLC (-0.313, p<0.05) and TLCO/Hb (-0.307, p<0.05), and LT C4 with TLC (-0.358, p<0.05). In pneumoconioses, EBC appears the most useful from the 3 fluids studied.
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  • Carmela Romana Natalina CORRAO, Adele MAZZOTTA, Giuseppe LA TORRE, Mar ...
    Article ID: MS1324
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Many work activities include hazards to workers, and among these biological risk is particularly important, mostly because of different types of exposure, contact with highly dangerous agents, lack of limit values able to compare all exposures, presence of workers with defective immune systems and therefore more susceptible to the risk. Bioaerosols and dust are considered important vehicles of microganisms at workplaces and interaction with other occupational agents is assumed. Moreover, biological risk can be significant in countries with increasing economic development or particular habits and some biological agents are also classified as carcinogenic to human. Specific emerging biological risks have been recently pointed out by Risk Observatory of the European Agency for Safety and Health at work, and we must consider the worker’s attitude and behaviour, influenced by his own perception of risk more than his real knowledge, that could over-underestimate the risk itself. Therefore, biological risk at work requires a complex approach in relation to risk assessment and risk management, made more difficult due to the wide variety of biological agents, working environments and working techniques that can determine the exposures.
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