Somatic chromosome number of Ephedra americana var. andina was 2n = 14 and its karyotype was composed of ten long metacentric chromosomes and four short subtelocentric chromosomes. Chromomycin A3 (CMA) bands appeared on small satellites of six metacentric chromosomes indicating CG-rich nucleolar organizer or rRNA locus. Satellites were DAPI-negative and weak DAPI-dots were detected in the interstitial regions of four metacentric chromosomes.
The present study documents ionizing radiation induced hormesis and its cytological evaluation via study of microsporogenesis in Crotalaria juncea L. (sunnhemp). Morphometric traits viz. plant height, seedling height, seed yield, lateral branches, number of pods and biomass were analyzed. A concomitant study of radiation response on the cytology of the plant has been done via studying pollen mother cells at different stages of microsporogenesis. Doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy with respect to control. Doses in the range of 100 to 300 Gy were shown to induce hormesis. Cytological aberrations had a stabilizing trend upto the hormetic dose but showed a sharp increase at chronic doses.
The agriculture sector has circumpassed a massive revolution in the past few decades. Old conventional practices and modern innovative techniques have complemented each other well. Applications of fertilizers have increased the crop yield, but its higher concentration has offered detrimental effects. Farmers often exceed the pre-requisite limit and this exaggeration denatures the soil and this aggravates various ecological repercussions. To tackle this complication, organic bio fertilizers have emerged as a sustainable, eco-friendly substitute and cost-effective approach. The objective of the present experimental setup is to investigate the effects of fertilizer ammonium Sulphate and biofertilizer agrozyme at the cytological level in the root meristems of barley and to trace out a safer crop enhancer between the two. Various concentrations of fertilizer and biofertilizer used were 50%, 100%, 150%, 200% each, along with a control set. Chromosomal studies revealed a considerable impact on Active mitotic index which depicted a consistent increment in the case of bio fertilizer, but appeared to decline at higher doses in the case of fertilizer, with respect to the control. Various chromosomal anomalies were observed, such as scattering, precocious movement, stickiness, fragmentation at metaphase and stickiness, laggard, unorientation, bridges etc. at anaphase. Percentage of these abnormalities was higher in the case of fertilizer. Conclusively, it is inferred that Bio fertilizers are mitotically accelerating and chromotoxically much safer as compared to fertilizers and should be promoted for agro-system to obtain sustainable crop improvement.
Heavy metal presence in soil is increasing due to anthropogenic activity lead to undesirable genotoxic effect on plants. The purpose of present investigation was to analyze genotoxic potential of chromium on pisum sativum root meristematic cell. Three concentration of chromium 10, 40, 80 ppm were used in the investigation. It was analyzed that with the increase in concentration mitotic index decrease. Control show highest 27 percent mitotic index and chromium 80 ppm show lowest mitotic index 8 percent. It reduce germination percentage by 50% at highest concentration. Chromium induce considerable amount of chromosomal aberration including, stickiness, legards, clumping, bridge, asynchronous division .chromosomal disintegration and loops .stickiness is induced in every stage of cell division.
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