The role of traditional Japanese houses and gardens in Finnish architect Alvar Aalto′s (1898-1976) career is often mentioned but without an in-depth study. This article analyzes and compares Aalto′s design for his own house and studio in Riihitie (1935-6) and his reading of Japan, particularly through Tetsuro Yoshida′s 1935 Das Japanische Wohnhaus (The Japanese House).
This study surveyed 89 traditional Hakka settlements in Dabu County, eastern Guangdong Province, China. The influences of the natural environment on settlement patterns were investigated via spatial and statistical analysis. Natural factors such as terrain, rivers and sunlight influence the construction of settlements at both regional and local levels. This gives settlements certain characteristics of distribution, scale, hierarchy and morphology. Although natural factors do affect settlement patterns, they do so indirectly through their influences on nearby agricultural resources. Restricted by the scarcity of farmland, the Hakka people have often had to settle in marginal landscapes prone to floods or with sub-optimal sunlight. Subsistence is sometimes only achieved by the labour-intensive farming of terraced hillsides. As such, the Hakka have struck a delicate balance with nature. In summary, this closed agrarian society is fundamentally dependent on the availability of farmland, indicating that the Hakka people suffered great survival pressures after migrating to the region.
This study tries to explain how small-scale gold jewelry mills adapted themselves to Seoul′s existing urban tissues, which were the residential area in the CBD. There are four manufacturing processes; designing and engraving, waxing and casting, and cutting and polishing. Firstly, three morphological cluster types could be identified in respect to the gold jewelry firms′ location; circulation type, finger type, and agglomeration type. Secondly, the robustness of the urban form elements (land use, buildings, plots, and streets) varied respectively. Small gold manufacturing firms of the circulation and finger type could easily adapt themselves to the existing urban tissues without new building construction. However, a few plots in the agglomeration type merged. A few old buildings in the merged plots were destroyed and were built into a new big one in which all gold processes could be carried out. The distance between shop and factory was generally farther than with other types. Finally, the existing street patterns influenced the clustering adaptation of small gold mills. Most of the buildings of the circulation type and finger type were located along dead-end streets and back lanes without changing the street patterns.
This study aims to clarify the design method illustrated in Le Corbusier′s museum prototype by analysing the third realization of the ″Museum of Unlimited Growth″ in Chandigarh, India (1957-1963). According to the analysis of Le Corbusier Plans, Le Corbusier′s Carnets (Sketchbooks), and the documents of his correspondence, the author categorizes the transformation process of the prototype into two parts. This analysis found the specialization of the prototype of the ″Museum of Unlimited Growth″ in the said design method. The symbolism of the central grand hall and the spiral extension were no longer the main themes. Le Corbusier devoted himself to only two elements of the museum prototype: the ceiling equipment for natural lighting and the water drain. In conclusion, this paper points out that the museum in Chandigarh is the architectural expression of the natural order represented by sunlight and water.
Archaeological discoveries have enriched our understanding of the tectonic traditions that underlie the evolution of ancient building technologies. In ancient China, the natural environment, in particular local climate and abundant building materials, along with the development of agricultural tools, shaped the unique local architectural types referred to as Jinggan, earth constructions that originated in the north of China, and Ganlan and Chuandou that originated in the south. This paper discusses the origin and evolution of each building type, as well as the process of merging the wood-based frames developed in the south of China with the earth-and-wood frames developed in the north. This new integration enabled an advanced jointing technology connecting wood columns and beams, and resulted in the wooden structural Tailiang method for the synthesis of framed and piled-up structures. We therefore argue that, on the basis of examples of such fusion in China as well as in other east Asian countries, integration was established via a strong vernacular foundation building on architectural tectonic recognition that helps us understand ancient Asian architecture.
For the Toraja, an ethnic group indigenous to South Sulawesi, Indonesia, ornamental engravings known as ′passura′ form more than simple decorative elements on their local architecture—they are symbolic icons that convey spiritual messages. As a representative art form, passura are significant on two levels: to the local community, they convey visual messages from within, while to viewers from outside the community, the icons′ uniformity of arrangement strongly implies an expression of cultural identity. However, knowledge concerning passura design is passed down tacitly from generation to generation, and few outside the community actually understand the underlying meaning of the passura, leaving them able to appreciate only their aesthetic aspects. This study focuses on developing an understanding of the logic of the imagery in the passura in order to investigate the method by which meaning is embedded in them through certain design strategies.
The objective of this study was to determine street environments wherein fear of crime and actual crime are highest in the environments surrounding elementary schools. To achieve this objective, elementary students′ fear of crime and actual crime experienced were analyzed. The study adopted a geographical method based on streets. The study results were as follows. First, a large number of elementary students experienced fear of crime on the road at the school they attended. Female students feared crime more than male students. Second, students′ fear of crime was mainly attributed to human factors (Many Bullies, Few People). Third, most elementary students experienced a fear of crime within a certain distance (500 m) from the school. Fourth, fear of crime and actual crime occurred mainly in small streets, small parks, or middle or high schools (advanced schools) nearby. Fifth, fear of crime and actual crime occurred near geographically similar elementary schools. Sixth, elementary students primarily experienced a fear of crime and actual crime on streets in densely populated residential areas.
Under the urban architecture paradigm for urban regeneration, the scope for research related to historical assets has broadened. Historical assets consist of private and public goods. The management responsibility of managing private goods is allocated to individuals, which has complicated the relationships among stakeholders and led to dissipation of assets and conflicts. To address this issue, this study focuses on community involvement in the conservation management of Kanazawa machiya, a Japanese traditional architecture style. This study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved classification of the types of conservation management activities and the local actors related to Kanazawa machiya. In the second phase, the relationship between different stakeholders and the characteristics of conservation management activities were investigated using the DEMATEL method. Finally, it drew on the Power-Interest Grid to examine stakeholders′ performance capability. The case study of Kanazawa machiya indicates that the building-up of the conservation management system involves the local actors and development of their activities. It also shows an incremental shift away from a government-led system to one based on government-citizen cooperation. This study demonstrates the necessity of community involvement and civic activities for the conservation management of historical assets.
This study focuses on the Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial′s occupation of former elementary schools in the area of Tokamachi. This contemporary art festival was launched in 2000 in an attempt to revive interest in this remote part of Japan. Through on-site observations, surveys, and interviews, this study first reviews the overall situation of closed educational facilities in the region. Then, a case-by-case description of the festival′s involvement was researched. It was discovered that the festival holds a prominent position in providing new uses for such unused facilities in the region. However, depending on the model of usage agreement, various degrees of occupation can be distinguished. Variations of activity timing, program, spatial occupation, and involved stakeholders, allowed the authors to theorize on the capacity of each model to bring change into these localities, and the region.
With the exacerbation of the human living environment and the clear increase in the public′s awareness of the need for energy saving, the Chinese government has increasingly been focusing upon the green housing market. The green housing market, however, is developing relatively slowly. The quality of the ″green″ houses being produced and the current levels of market supply and demand are under-developed. Therefore, this article aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding and evaluation of the green housing market and its degree of maturity in China. Authors achieve this understanding through system dynamics simulation results. Firstly, by analyzing the internal effects and interactions of demand subsystems, development subsystems, and government action subsystems, a system dynamics model (which is used to describe the green housing market) is established. Secondly, our study builds a maturity assessment model, which is based on the theory of maturity. In addition, our study dynamically conducts an evaluation of the development of the green housing market. Thirdly, our study combines the simulation results with the maturity evaluation, in order to achieve a dynamic evaluation and prediction of the development of the green housing market. Finally, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions.
Construction projects are diverse, ranging from industrial infrastructure to residential facilities, and all of these consume energy during operation and maintenance. From this perspective, passive houses can serve as a green housing model for energy-savings. However, Koreans have not actively adopted passive houses in domestic construction compared to other countries, since the energy cost savings are low compared to construction costs. This study extracts the technical management factors in domestic passive house building through a review of the related literature and a focus group interview (FGI) of relevant experts. Additionally, the relative importance of the 6 high-level management factors and 22 low-level factors was analyzed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results show that the most important items relate to the performance of the construction materials and the techniques used in construction. The results should help further the development of a passive house model and technical management tailored for the Korean market.
Triple glazing windows incorporate drainage holes on glazing beads or gaskets to provide a path for condensed water from the inside to the outside. These holes are considered to be effective for draining condensed water but may decrease the air-tightness and increase the condensation risk due to the drop in surface temperature resulting from the intake of cold outside air. In this study, the related specifications and documents on the application of drainage holes and previous studies were reviewed. For the triple glazing windows with and without drainage holes, the condensation resistance and air-tightness were evaluated and compared. Condensation resistance and air-tightness were tested in accordance with KS F 2295 and KS F 2292, respectively. The results showed that the use of drainage holes did not have a significant negative impact on the condensation resistance and air-tightness.
In 1940~60s France, there was massive housing construction with government-led postwar reconstruction and Haussmannization, and society was under the cultural wave of modernization and Americanization. Meanwhile, the film director Jacques Tati (1907-1982), also an actor, criticized the excessive pursuit of modernity and Americanization through his feature films. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ′Inhuman Characteristics of Modern Architecture′ represented in Tati′s films during the 1950-70s. It is assumed that films reflect the social and architectural backgrounds as well as the interests of the general public. For the analysis, a pool of artistically and publicly renowned Tati films was constructed. Through the scenes and their respective scripts, the characters, acts, and architectural spaces were analyzed. The contents of the main body of this research are the following: 1) The abuse of International Style buildings, the loss of local singularity and the lack of originality of modern architecture were criticized in the films. 2) The sterility and impersonality of modern architecture and rigid functional spaces were blamed. 3) The social infatuation with cutting-edge technology and ultramodern buildings were satirized. 4) Lastly, there was resistance to the overuse of ′glass′, one of the valuable modern building materials.
Designer-oriented space design has been transferred to user-oriented space design that considers users′ emotions as well as the functions of the space, producing a multi-sensory space. Further, with the advent of embedded digital media and information technology in a space, various interface functions of the space have been developed and the user experience in the space has been much extended. This research investigated user experience and emotional aspects of a space′s design, which have been sparsely researched previously. Further, authors emphasize not only the emotion expression of the space, but also the interaction of people and space for the embodiment of the emotions from a wider perspective. Authors reviewed multidisciplinary literatures and compared various methodologies of measurement. Based on the understanding of the studies on the measurement of emotion, authors developed measures of emotion in interaction associated with spaces. The strength of the research is the focus on the integration of the space with technologies and user experiences from a new perspective in emotion research, rather than concentrating only on the architecture components of the buildings themselves. Through empirical studies, the measurements of emotion in architectural spaces can be verified and elaborated.
Tourism is becoming a viable and important economic development strategy in the regeneration of historic districts. Nonetheless, tourism may bring negative impacts to the local communities. As a result, local residents′ perceptions and attitudes toward tourism development are critical to the sustainable development of tourism. This study follows a qualitative research approach, attempting to examine the relationship between local residents′ social-demographic features and their perceptions of tourism development. The framework is applied to the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing, China, which is a typical tourism destination benefitting from its traditional urban forms. Data from 24 in-depth interviewees are analyzed using word-frequency analysis through text encoding. The results reveal that the cultural perception of the residents promoted place attachment, which was associated with impact perception, and together, they determined behavioral demand. The stronger the cultural perception of the residents is and the stronger their place attachment is, the more the negative impact of tourism is perceived and the stronger their demand for cultural protection is. Long-term residents, those with occupations unrelated to tourism, and those who live adjacent to the tourism attractions perceived more negative impacts.
Operation planning for table formwork using a crane-independent lifting system (CLS) is a crucial factor affecting productivity for formwork in tall building construction. Inappropriate heuristic operation plans are likely to increase work duration because of temporarily displaced stacks of table forms, and may also increase costs because of excessive use of equipment. The authors propose a simulation-based operation planning model for table formwork for efficient operations in tall building construction. By optimizing the shifting sequence of table forms and the location of the CLS in a case study, the proposed model reduced working hours for table forms by 6.62% from the working hours derived by a heuristic approach. Furthermore, the derived alternatives reduced working hours by a maximum of 45%, depending on the number of trolleys used. This study can be utilized for informed decision-making by construction workers in tall building construction while selecting the optimal operation plan for table forms by considering project cost and schedule.
In this study we examined the relationships between the built environment and urban air temperature in Seoul city, Korea. We developed multivariate regression models that address the relationship between built environment characteristics and the ambient air temperature with spatial statistics techniques. In addition, we analyzed the difference in daytime and nighttime air temperature to identify the built environment characteristics that affect the intensity of the nocturnal urban heat island effect (UHI). The large sample size of AWS locations in Seoul makes it possible to analyze the factors that influence ambient air temperature and UHI effect. The analysis results indicate that the sky view factor (SVF) and gross floor area significantly influence the daytime air temperature, while the building coverage and albedo showed strong relationships with the nocturnal air temperature. This study also demonstrated the importance of advanced spatial statistics techniques that control spatial autocorrelation and spatial heteroscedasticity in urban air temperature research. Our models confirmed the need to capture the effects of spatial autocorrelations within our spatial data. The findings of this study are valuable for understanding the complicated associations between the built environment and urban air temperature and to develop public policies to mitigate UHI effects.
In this paper, six urban districts of Beijing were used in a case study in which the check-in data of Sina Micro-blog (Weibo), a micro-blogging website, from September 24 to October 7, 2014, were acquired, and the spatial and temporal distributions of the check-in activities of urban residents and their impacting factors were investigated through GIS kernel density analysis and SPSS correlation analysis. The results showed that in a continuous time period, the check-in activities assumed a wavy periodic motion with a cycle of 24 hours and also time differentiation characteristics. The spatial variations in the check-in activities in spatial agglomeration centers among the districts were somewhat large, with Chaoyang District being the most concentrated area among the spatial agglomeration centers. The distribution of the check-in activities exhibited significant features of rating-scale and core-periphery. The factors affecting the time distribution of the check-in activities mainly derived from the regularity of human activities, and the distance attenuation law and the urban services industry exerted important impacts on the spatial structure of check-in activities.
This article claims that the recent mega-scale urban project Design Seoul is a case illustrating the entanglement of institutional interventions onto everyday city space and varying reactions from individual agents of power. Nominated by two international NGOs—the ICSID (International Council of Societies of Industrial Design) and UNESCO—Design Seoul, which lasted roughly from 2007 to 2011, is the first extensive urban project in the history of Korea. In order to make the project move forward, the ministry of Seoul and groups of specialists from different sectors of society attempted to renew the entire city under a number of guiding principles in the hope of making Seoul a brand city. Despite the dominant views that Design Seoul is considered a pivotal exemplar of a top-down model of power in the urban realm, this article claims that such an ostensibly one-directional project in fact operates through more complex patterns of intervention and public experience, in ways that various agents of power related to the project read given design guidelines and practice them in aleatory and creative ways.
Although many studies have documented statistically significant associations between built environments and walking activity in certain Western countries, little research has been done to explore the spatial variations of the relationship between built environment measures and pedestrian volume for Asian mega-cities. With the application of spatial statistics that control for spatial autocorrelation, this study examines the determinant factors of the built environment on pedestrian volume using the 2009 Seoul Pedestrian Flow Survey (SPFS), which includes 10,000 locations across the city of Seoul. As an unprecedentedly large database for pedestrian activity in the Korean mega-city, this survey data provides an invaluable opportunity to explore the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian volume. The analysis results indicate that most built environment variables such as density, diversity, distance, connectivity, and design have statistically significant associations with pedestrian volume in Seoul. However, this study also finds that the relationships between some built environment measures and pedestrian volume have different associations depending on whether they are in residential or commercial zones. This finding indicates that the relationships between the built environment and pedestrian volume should be examined in the context of spatial location and land use characteristics of the case study area.
A form-finding method of tensegrity systems is a process of finding an equilibrium configuration and a key step in the design of tensegrity. Over the past few years, several studies have been made on the form-finding methods of tensegrity systems, however, these methods are limited in the tensegrity systems with multiple self-stress states. In this study, a numerical method is presented for form-finding of tensegrity structures with multiple states of self-stress by using a force density method combined with a genetic algorithm. The proposed method can design the desired tensegrity shape through a genetic algorithm with appropriate constraints. The design variable can be uniquely defined in the case of multiple states of self-stress using only the constraint of the member types. An eigenvalue decomposition of the force density matrix and a singular value decomposition of the equilibrium matrix are performed repeatedly in order to determine a feasible solution for nodal coordinates and force densities. A genetic algorithm is then adopted to uniquely define a single integral feasible set of force densities. Several numerical examples are presented to prove efficiency in searching for self-equilibrium configurations of tensegrity structures. In all cases, the single integral feasible self-stress states can be obtained.
For efficient and rational utilization of limited bridge maintenance budgets, a method which could be applied to project-level and network-level bridge maintenance decision making issues considering the performance and direct and indirect value of each bridge is proposed. A representative bridge performance is shown as a risk level which is a combination of risk degrees indicated by condition state and safety factor and the replacement value was calculated by considering the direct construction cost and implicit value of bridges in consideration of traffic environments according to the location. The risk matrix was composed using the risk level and the replacement value, and the risk grade which represented the overall risk of each bridge was defined. The model to convert the phased risk level of each bridge to the risk index which was the continuous and quantitative index by applying the utility theory was presented, and the formalized model for calculating network-level performance index considering the risk index and relative importance of each bridge was suggested. In order to consider actual applicability of the suggested method, an analysis on a large number of actual bridges was carried out. A prior preparation regarding the stable distribution of budget and structural and environmental risks is possible so that it would be possible to quantify objective decision making for bridge maintenance.
The third-moment (3M) method has been considered to be one of the most reliable methods for calculating structural reliability with high computing efficiency. This paper proposes a new 3M reliability index that has a wider applicable range and less limitation. Numerical experiments show that the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of existing methods. In particular, when existing 3M methods are out of their respective applicable ranges, the proposed method can still be used to evaluate the failure probability. Therefore, the proposed method is deemed more applicable for practical engineering.
Excavation work accounts for a high percentage of the total building construction cost. The most widely used method for excavation work in an urban area is a braced wall system with struts or rakers. H-shaped steel, which is the most commonly used component for struts in braced wall systems, has disadvantages such as cost-ineffectiveness and increased work interference associated with narrow strut spacing. Therefore, the use of high-strength steel pipe struts in braced wall systems can be an effective alternative to widening the strut spacing. In this study, the construction costs of a braced wall system using H-shaped steel and a braced wall system made with high strength steel pipe were compared by analyzing the required amounts of materials and the construction costs for four practical cases. All analyzed cases considered a change from H-shaped steel to high strength steel pipe in a design change during the construction stage. The results of this study show that the required amount of materials and the construction costs of a braced wall system with high strength steel pipe were lower than those of a braced wall system with H-shaped steel. Consequently, this study suggests that a high strength steel pipe strut is a more economical alternative than an H-shaped steel strut in braced wall systems for deep excavation work.
In this study, a fast-drying ultra-high strength grout material was developed. The physical properties, fatigue performance, and failure mechanism of the newly developed grout material were clarified through quality inspections and uniaxial cyclic compression tests of several prepared specimens. Uniaxial compressive loading tests were conducted on small-scale models with and without shear keys in order to assess the structural performance of the newly developed grout material. The newly developed grout material and an existing high-performance grout material were compared, and the test results showed that the newly developed grout material had outstanding advantages with regard to the setting time, fatigue performance, and structural performance compared to the latter.
The preservation district of groups of traditional buildings is an important category of cultural properties in Japan. Japan has entered an earthquake active period. However, conventional culturally and socially oriented site investigation methods hardly satisfy the requirements of risk management of district preservation. In this study, the authors introduce an investigation method from the structural and security perspectives. They explain the study procedure, methods and results. Results of the investigation of two coastal districts, namely, Ine and Yuasa, are comparatively studied, and regional disparities are highlighted. The study concludes that district vulnerability and house structural performance should be considered as important indices when making decisions regarding district preservation.
The outrigger structural system is one of the most widely used lateral load-resisting structural systems for high-rise buildings. To increase the energy dissipation capacity of the outrigger system, an outrigger damping system has been proposed as a novel energy dissipation system. In this system, the outrigger and perimeter columns are separate and vertical viscous dampers are equipped between the outrigger and perimeter columns. In this study, the control performance of a semi-active outrigger damping system for the seismic protection of a building structure was investigated. Semi-active damping devices, such as magnetorheological (MR) dampers instead of passive dampers, are installed vertically between the outrigger and perimeter columns to achieve large and adaptable energy dissipation. A fuzzy logic control algorithm was used to generate a command voltage sent to the semi-active MR dampers. A genetic algorithm was used to optimize the fuzzy logic controller. An artificial earthquake load was generated for the numerical simulation and a simplified numerical model of a damped outrigger system was developed. Numerical analyses showed that the semi-active damped outrigger system could effectively reduce both the displacement and acceleration responses of the tall buildings compared to a passive outrigger damper system.
Light straw clay is a mixture of straw and clay used as an infill in wood framed construction to create non-load bearing walls. Light straw clay has numerous advantages: Consisting of straw and clay, the raw materials are locally available throughout most of Japan. Light straw clay′s relatively low thermal conductivity provides good thermal insulation, which reduces energy use and CO2 emissions due to heating and cooling. The tools and technology needed to construct light straw clay walls are relatively simple and commonly available. And lastly, upon deconstruction, the walls can safely decompose without becoming landfill. There are relatively few non-commercial insulation materials consisting of renewable materials. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential for light straw clay in Japan, including an investigation of the building method, thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer. The building method was found to take more time than conventional construction, which in turn increases labor costs. The mean thermal conductivity of the actual light straw clay insulation was 0.067W/mK. The heat transfer coefficient for a cross section of the insulated wall was 0.531W/m2K.
This study suggests a new method to evaluate the CO2 emissions from residential complexes in South Korea. The conventional method only reflects energy consumption for space heating, hot water, and lighting. The Korean government has mandated a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions from these sources to achieve the 26.9% national CO2 reduction requirement from the building sector. The modified method reflects electricity consumption for public use and total electricity consumption for private use. The suggested equation for public electricity consumption is established by analyzing the electricity consumption of 26 residential complexes. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) the conventional evaluation method is appropriate for low-rise residential complexes and a 26.7% reduction in CO2 emissions is expected. (2) However, the conventional method cannot meet the national CO2 reduction goal in high-rise residential complexes. Only a 21.7% reduction in CO2 emissions can be achieved and a modification of the energy calculation method and CO2 reduction goal should occur.
In this study, similarities and differences in psychological evaluations of sightseeing scenes in Hiroshima by Korean, Chinese and Japanese subjects were examined to identify new and attractive features for foreigners. Forty scenes were chosen as the stimuli for the psychological experiments; these were sourced from sightseeing homepages in Hiroshima Prefecture. In the evaluation for ′Hope to visit′, scenes that largely contained artificial elements received lower evaluations. In contrast, scenes that depicted nature and Japanese gardens received higher evaluations. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ′Hope to visit′ and ′Similarity to Japan′. Scenes depicting characteristics were preferred to typical Japanese scenes, and subjects recognised the similarity between Japanese and Korean scenes, which explains their lack of desire to visit. Similarities and differences among the three subject groups were determined; however, since the subjects were living in Japan, they might have obtained Japanese knowledge and experiences. Therefore, further study is required to compare the results with evaluations of people who have not left their native countries.
Following the experimental homes that used the concept of zero life-cycle-CO2 (LCCO2) that were built in 2008 and 2009, the first zero-LCCO2 home was introduced in the market in 2010. The idea of a zero-LCCO2 home is to reduce the annual energy consumption and increase solar energy use so that photovoltaic (PV) energy generation substantially exceeds the total energy consumption of the home. The remainder of the annual energy balance can be accumulated every year to compensate for the energy required during the manufacturing and construction periods. The annual CO2 absorption by PV generation exceeds the annual CO2 emissions owing to energy use. In other words, the LCCO2 may approach zero over time. In this study, the annual energy use and CO2 balance of the house were carefully simulated. The embodied CO2 of the house was also evaluated using an input–output analysis and accumulation method. The results suggest that the material added for better energy efficiency and CO2 emissions generated during the manufacturing and construction periods have a positive effect on reducing the LCCO2 of homes.
This study investigated whether the combined use of rice hull and carbonized rice hull (CRH) can offset the negative aspects of each other, and can deliver an optimum indoor environment performance. To achieve this goal, the CO2 emissions of rice hull and the economic feasibility of CRH were considered simultaneously to deliver a mix ratio, and the fundamental properties of the material were analyzed to verify its performance. Full-scale mockups were constructed, and the effect on the indoor environment was verified through monitoring and a comparative analysis. Analysis showed that the heat capacity of the experimental mockup was larger than that of the control, and therefore it was effective in controlling indoor temperature in winter. The application of complex insulation material is also effective in controlling indoor humidity in winter and spring, and a humidity control plan that follows either a moisture-proof plan or ventilation is required to control humidity in summer and autumn. The CO2 level of the experimental mockup was high due to the anaerobic fermentation of the rice hull in the complex material. Therefore, a moisture prevention plan using water-proof and moisture-proof materials and a ventilation plan need to be considered in advance.
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Edited and published by : Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ), Architectural Institute of Korea (AIK) and Architectural Society of China (ASC) Secretarial Office: AIJ Email: jaabe(at)aij.or.jp Produced and listed by : Showa Joho Process Co., Ltd. (-Vol.1) Toyo Agency Inc. (Vol.2-)