The formation of the Treaty Ports after the Opium Wars saw the introduction of the ideas of the Industrial Revolution to Imperial China. The Treaty Ports acted as the intersection of Chinese and Western cultures, playing a crucial role in introducing Western technology. This article shows for the first time how, counter-intuitively, the problems of supply of Chinese timber actually provided the impetus for the wider adoption of Western forms of carpentry construction such as purlin roofs with king-post trusses. It also shows how the competition between timber suppliers ultimately led to Chinese nationalist backlash against imported timber and techniques.
The aim of this research is to present a structured and comprehensive history of the rebuilding process of the Kintai Bridge and also to analyze the building knowhow of this particular structure that has been passed down to generations of carpenters. A great part of the information was obtained from interviews with the carpenters that worked on the most recent rebuilding process and also on available historical materials, such as drawings and tools that were used in past rebuildings. This research analyzes the history of the bridge by dividing it into three distinguished periods. In the first period, the bridge is considered to have maintained its original design and as such; in the Heisei Era rebuild, carpenters decided to restore the Kintai Bridge to this original form using the earliest available drawings from the Genroku Era. During the second period, carpenters developed their own design templates and measuring units in the form of rulers to guide the rebuilding process. The last and third period covers the modernization of the bridge since the Shōwa Era rebuild (1950).
This research examines the adoption of Western modernism in Korean modern architecture in the early 20th century, which was a period of conflict not only between tradition and modernity, but also between the East and West. The overall research explores a representative and pioneering Korean modern architect, Dong-jin Park (1899-1981), who actively practiced his design during the Japanese colonial period. In particular, this research scrutinizes Dong-jin Park′s recognition of Western modernism through his publications, for example, in magazines and newspapers, which described his recognition of Western architecture. Through the representative architect′s ideas and writings, this research seeks to identify the characteristics and origins of Korean modern architecture.
This paper explores the Korean Pavilion at the Montreal Expo ′67 as a mediation of contrastive concepts in modern architecture: tradition and modernity, native and foreign, and preservation and development. This pavilion was built in 1967 as the Korean exhibition hall for the Montreal Expo ′67 in Canada. Designed by Korean architect Swoo-Geun Kim (1931−1986), it was widely praised to have played a significant role in revealing Korea′s national identity to the world at that time. This pavilion demonstrates the following design intentions: 1) The pavilion tried to mediate between tradition and modernity in Korean architecture. Although the design manifested the aesthetic sense of the Korean traditional housing hanok through applying the hanok′s wooden structure, the designer also reflected on modern architectural concepts through implementing open spaces and irregularly arranged columns in accordance with functions. 2) This pavilion mediates between authentic Korean and Japanese traditional styles. Influenced by his educational background in Japan, Kim drew on his perception of Japanese architecture when designing this pavilion and included Japanese traditional elements. 3) This pavilion mediates between the processes of preservation and development in an urban context, and the preservation issue of this building is still an ongoing debate.
Column leaning in Korean traditional wooden heritage structures has been emphasized in various reports since the first survey report in the 1950s, which established the importance of its measurement. Manual measurements have been carried out for a long time; however, recently, three-dimensional (3D) scanning has been used to obtain accurate data. Through periodic surveys of column leaning using 3D scanning, column displacement can be measured accurately. This study aims to measure the column leaning in Sungryeoljeon at Namhansanseong, a World Heritage Site, using 3D scanning, and then determine its displacement through a periodic survey. Such displacement in column leaning may reveal the characteristics of wooden architecture. The 12 columns of Sungryeoljeon are displaced in different directions. Generally, they lean toward the south and rotate clockwise. Column displacement does not occur so quickly in certain directions. Nonetheless, the aspects of column leaning that are already in progress need to be observed carefully.
This study examines the waterway, road and lot systems sustained even after the destruction of Cheongju Castle in the early 20th century in Seongan-dong, Cheongju, a historical city in the inland of South Korea. Seongan-dong, where Cheongju Castle is located, has a ship-like form with the waterway system of Musimcheon Stream that flows backwards. The main current and tributary of Gyoseocheon Stream that flowed in and out of the town castle had served as a drain, and is currently serving as a street network after being covered at the end of the century. As for the road system, there is a rounded-square street network that shows traces of the destroyed town fortress, an orthogonal street network centered on Seongan-gil that connects the south gate to the north gate of the fortress, and dendritic type alleys in the residential district outside the south gate where the tributary of Gyoseocheon Stream had flowed. For the lot system, large-scale lots for government office, guesthouse and barracks at the center of the town castle are now a government office building and park. Large-scale and small-scale lots are subdivided around Seongan-gil and Nammun-gil, where commercial activities took place, but more than 90% of the division lines of the original lot still remain. As such, 3 important factors that set the direction for the urban landscape of Cheongju include: (1) the restorable waterway system that is still sustained even after 100 years of the modern period, (2) the orderly road system stretched north and south, and (3) the lot system that determines certain sizes and forms of buildings.
This study compares residential satisfaction in terms of local urban spatial characteristics between Seorae Village of Banpo 4-dong, and the Garosu-gil area of Sinsa-dong, both of which display distinct local identities and instances of mixed use. The results can be summarized as follows: First, residential satisfaction was higher in Seorae Village, Banpo 4-dong, than in the Garosu-gil area, Sinsa-dong, across all statistically significant criteria which were related to urban space characteristics such as the effective utilization of shared external space through block-unit development, independent territoriality of commercial and residential areas, qualitative completeness of green and street spaces. Second, the most influential factors affecting residential satisfaction were amenity, neighborhood, and safety in descending order, with amenity and safety showing a high degree of correlation. The amenity factor was significantly affected by the quality of transition areas situated between individual housing and urban space, and the neighborhood factor was closely related to community awareness. Third, while the commercialization of residential areas was largely regarded in a positive light, satisfaction regarding the street space in residential and commercial areas showed low correlation to overall residential satisfaction. Securing parking space and green space, and resolving the noise issue were identified as areas in need of improvement associated with the commercialization of residential areas, and they were major causes for residents in Sinsa-dong near the Garosu-gil area to relocate.
To construct a sustainable and healthy building, it is necessary to build a system capable of efficiently analyzing, assessing and managing health performance data over the life cycle of a building. To fulfill such needs, health-friendly resources database, life cycle health-performance tree, health performance evaluation and health management concepts were suggested. Such studies focused on health performance. Selecting building materials based only on their health performance while ignoring cost is likely to lead to not only rapid construction cost increases, but also higher maintenance costs. For cost-benefit management, the health performance and cost management model was proposed. However, while the model can be used in decision-making, it is unable to suggest an optimization solution. To supplement this need, this study proposes a health performance and cost optimization model for sustainable healthy buildings. The model proposed here is composed of simulation and optimization modules for health performance and cost using the concepts mentioned above.
This paper presents the development of a modelling framework for synthesizing and visualizing the spatial impacts of multiple factors with respect to the project site in architectural and urban design. In design practice, collecting and processing the information about the project site is critical to the final outcome of the design proposal. Given the complexity observed in our built-up environment, the information that architects need to process and respond to is enormous in terms of magnitude and variety. The proposed modelling framework aims to quantify the spatial impacts of various site factors on a consistent basis. The significance of this research lies in synthesizing the impacts from multiple factors through a digital interface. The three-dimensional form of data representation within the digital context may inspire schematic thoughts of architects. By adjusting the parameterization of each factor, architects can prioritize the design issues and explore a wide spectrum of design schemes.
The promotion of Green Buildings (GB) has become a global trend that improves resource efficiency and the well-being of societies. The development of GB still encounters different obstacles in developing countries. The critical success factors of GB and their relationships with GB certification levels in Thailand have been investigated. The relationships between the competence of individual project participants and competence of project team at different GB certification levels are also analyzed. The results reveal the underlying patterns of the overall picture of the GB industry in Thailand, and suggest that all project participants should continuously improve their competences via technical and management innovation for delivering affordable and sustainable products, thereby making green buildings more available and appealing to the public. This study provides empirical evidence for all project participants to adopt appropriate team building strategies and optimally allocate their resources to achieve the suitable GB certification levels.
The excavation work for constructing urban high-rise buildings is narrow and deep, limiting the mobility of equipment. In addition, the productivity of excavation work varies according to the type and amount of equipment used. Therefore, a combination of excavation and rock breaking equipment is needed to maximize productivity while minimizing the cost of excavation work. Simulation of various cases is needed to draw optimum plans for variables that can greatly affect the productivity of excavation work, but that is not an easy task. Furthermore, a great deal of information and time are necessary for engineers or technicians to review the combination of equipment. For these reasons, most engineers or technicians are unable to accurately predict construction duration or the cost of using a particular equipment combination, based on their experience. The objective of this paper is to propose an efficient equipment combination model for effective excavation work for urban high-rise buildings. In the test case project, applying the proposed model reduced the equipment rental cost about 3% compared with the method relying on experience. The results of this study will be useful in establishing earthwork plans by taking into consideration the productivity of equipment per type and combination.
As is known, transportation is an indispensable part of social life. Especially, transportation systems are used directly or indirectly in order to meet social necessities. In this sense, this study, taking into account traditional street patterns, elaborates on the structure of today′s streets within the context of its relationship with areas allocated to public use. As human activity increases in urban areas, demand for transportation increases. It is possible to overcome difficulties faced in this respect by planning transportation and by developing an effective transportation system. Despite the fact that preferred areas by city dwellers change over time in line with new trends and development of shopping malls, Suriçi retains its population density and touristic value. This study aims to make a contribution to the literature on the relationship between transportation and social areas and the importance of preservation of street pattern in the city′s traditional centre.
A reduced-scale (1:4) building corridor model was prepared to investigate the heat release rate (HRR) and smoke diffusion in a building corridor. Trays with heptane as fuel were used as fire sources. Three different sizes of trays were involved in this study to investigate the different HRRs. The results revealed that fire associated with larger trays exhibited a steeper power-law growth and decay. The temperature distributions in the corridor for the three cases showed similar tendencies. The temperature in the upper part of the corridor was relatively high, which decayed sharply along the corridor. However, the temperature in the lower part of the corridor was approximately the ambient temperature. Numerical simulation was also introduced to obtain more details regarding the temperature. The ceiling temperature was studied by using dimensionless parameters. The correlation between the ceiling temperature and the distance was fitted by using an exponential equation, and significant fitting results were obtained. Moreover, the vertical average temperatures in the corridor were also studied. The result indicated that greater HRRs led to higher vertical average temperatures with steeper growths and decreases.
In order to conserve or reuse historic buildings in Taiwan which are located in an earthquake-prone area, it is critical to ensure their seismic capacity. The historical Japanese-style wooden houses are those of concern in this study. Three historical offices of this kind which were damaged in the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake were selected. First, ambient vibration measurements were taken to investigate their natural frequency and vibration mode. Performance-based assessment for wooden buildings in Japan was adopted and modified to evaluate the seismic capacity of the offices. By comparing the evaluation results and the damage observed in the earthquake, applicability of the method was verified. Accordingly, a seismic evaluation method for the Japanese-style wooden buildings in Taiwan was established. In addition, the relationship between measured natural frequency and calculated base shear coefficient was investigated and compared to the empirical formula for wooden houses in Japan.
The greatest challenges facing straw bale building in Japan, and many other countries with high humidity and precipitation, are moisture and the susceptibility of straw to microbial decay. WUFI-Bio, developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, is a computer program that assesses the risk of mold growth in buildings based on measured or computed climatic conditions. Researchers in Japan have monitored the hygrothermal conditions of six straw bale buildings in Japan and evaluated the risk of mold growth based on an interstitial temperature and relative humidity guideline. The purpose of the present study is: (one) reevaluate the potential for mold growth in the six buildings using WUFI-Bio and (two) evaluate the accuracy of Holzhueter and Itonaga′s interstitial temperature and relativity guideline vis-à-vis WUFI-Bio. As a result of the study, the potential for mold growth was found to vary by structure. Buildings utilizing rainscreens were found to have a lower risk of mold growth. Holzhueter and Itonaga′s interstitial temperature and relativity guideline was found to over exaggerate the potential for mold growth. Also, although Holzhueter′s guideline does indicate a potential for mold growth, the number of hours above the guideline alone is not a sufficiently accurate indication of severity.
The effect of intermediate elastic support on the vibration of functionally graded Euler-Bernoulli beams excited by a moving point load is studied. The material properties of the beams are assumed to vary in the thickness direction of the beams by a power function. Governing equations of motion that take into account the shift in the physically neutral surface position, are constructed using Hamilton′s principle. A finite element model is developed and employed in computing the dynamic response of the beams. The influence of the stiffness and position of the elastic support on the dynamic characteristics of the FGM beams is examined and highlighted.
Force transfer in misaligned columns in building structures can be implemented using overlapping column transfer assemblies. Two 1/6 scaled models of overlapping column transfer assemblies were tested to investigate their mechanical behavior under monotonic loadings. Both specimens were constructed using reinforced concrete and had an overlapping ratio of 0.56, one of which was encased with a steel truss with a cross-sectional steel plate ratio of 3.73%. A finite element method-based model was built, verified and used for parametric studies. Results indicated that the load bearing capacities of the steel-encased assembly increased by 35% compared to that of the assembly without steel. The increase in cross-sectional steel plate ratios and decrease in overlapping ratios improved the load bearing capacities of steel-encased assemblies.
Nine cyclic tests were conducted on full-scale one-story, one-bay timber post and beam construction specimens to study the lateral resistance of reinforced glued-laminated timber post and beam structures. Two reinforcement methods, wrapping fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) and implanting self-tapping screws, and two structural systems, simple frame and knee-braced frame, were considered in the experimental tests. Based on the observed experimental phenomena and the test results, the feasibility of the reinforcement was discussed; the contributions of different methods were evaluated; and the seismic performance of the specimens were studied. The results indicated that both reinforcement methods could limit the crack development and improve the strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. The results also showed that the lateral resistance could be significantly improved by retrofitting a failed simple frame with joint reinforcement and a knee-brace, demonstrating that this approach can be applied in engineering practice.
In Taiwan, most of the existing historic wooden buildings built in the Japanese colonial period have become culturally important. These properties preserve the historical atmosphere and culture of local communities. Unfortunately, some of these buildings have been abandoned or have suffered serious damage during earthquakes; and, others have not been well maintained. The conservation and retrofitting of these historic wooden buildings have recently become valued and recognized by authorities. Some of these buildings have been retrofitted, becoming exhibition galleries, restaurants, or even local landmarks. However, changes in the functions of the building have resulted in some safety issues, such as additional fire loading or demolished shear walls. In this paper, adaptive reuses of these retrofitted buildings are discussed based on a field investigation. Factors that directly influence the structural safety are emphasized, and a potential issue affecting these factors – the lack of professional education and experience – is also discussed.
Pretensioned spun high strength concrete (PHC) piles are a commonly used type of pile, while approximately 60% of the pile′s strength is only used in the design bearing capacity. Because of the limited support capacities of PHC piles, applying PHC piles to high-rise buildings or soft ground is inefficient. Extended end (EXT) piles are a new type of pile that can reduce the waste of pile strength and increase the ground bearing capacity. This study investigated the behavior of EXT piles through a field test and it was confirmed that the bearing capacity of the EXT pile is better than the PHC pile. The increased bearing capacity of EXT piles also influenced work duration and project cost.
This study shows the results of field measurements of an apartment building located in Tibet′s capital and in traditional houses in order to evaluate their levels concerning the living environment such as inside and outside temperature, humidity, illumination intensity, CO and CO2 concentration, intensity of solar radiation and the UV strength. The Tibetan plateau is characterized by high altitudes, low oxygen concentration, transparent atmosphere, wide diurnal range temperature, and special culture and life style, so UV and solar radiation, thermal environment and IAQ claim attention. Also a questionnaire survey was carried out for the consideration of improvements. We describe architecturally useful ways of utilizing the abundant solar energy in the Tibetan plateau of China and the solar potentials of various places are analyzed. Especially, the floor materials of the apartment houses and traditional residences in Lhasa city are examined and the living environment is improved using a direct heat gain system with simulation software. In addition, the condensation function of a solar cooker is used effectively in the local area, by selecting the most suitable materials. Also the power output performance of a solar cell using a compact portable sunlight concentrator proposes characteristic application methods for Tibetan residences.
Office workers′ productivity might be affected by their satisfaction with not only their own workplace but also meeting area, break area and accessory spaces in and around the building. This paper investigates the relation between workers′ subjective productivity and satisfaction with those spaces, statistically analyzing the data collected by the SAP that is a subjective productivity assessment system developed in Japan. Applying a statistical causality analysis to the data of 228 offices, it was revealed that, in addition to satisfactions with environmental factors in an office, satisfaction and frequency of use in other spaces considerably affect workers′ easiness of four types of behavior, focusing, relaxing, communicating, and creative activity, which finally influence productivity in a building. This finding supports the significance of extending the questions from office to overall building in the SAP system.
Efficient control of ventilation and cooling/heating systems in buildings is integral to making adjustments to indoor environments and to minimizing energy use. In high-rise buildings, however, the stack effect is generated through vertical shafts in the buildings, and the air flow due to the stack effect greatly affects the efficiency of air-conditioning systems used for ventilation, cooling, and heating. Therefore, attenuating the stack effect in high-rise buildings is a critical aspect of HVAC operations as well as a solution for direct problems related to the stack effect, such as high-velocity draft, high-level noise in the buildings, and so on. In general, as a method to attenuate the stack effect in high-rise buildings, revolving doors are installed at the lobby entrance. However, while this method may be effective on the floors where revolving doors are applied, the efficiency is very low when considering the entire building due to the existence of many air flow paths and the fact that revolving doors applied to only part of a building can control only a portion of the air flow. Numerical simulation analysis was performed in this study to quantitatively examine the stack effect attenuation characteristics of revolving doors on both a partial building level and for the entire building. In addition, the effects of building height and airtightness on the performance of the building envelope were considered.
The South Korean and Seoul metropolitan governments have been forced to radically change the current High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps to Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps for street lighting in cities according to ″LED Plan 2060.″ Thus, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility of LED-based street lighting by analyzing energy efficiency and life cycle cost. For this purpose, a comparison of the lighting energy consumption by dimming control in Wooi Stream as a test bed project was conducted and the life cycle cost of LED lamps for replacing HPS lamps for street lighting was analyzed. As a result, LED lamp replacement could reduce the energy consumption by 69% compared to HPS lamps, and the dimming control system by pedestrian movements could save 77% of lighting energy. However, the payback period of LED replacement is 11.5 years. This indicates that the high purchase price of LED lamps would decline by 80% within 4–5 years with assertive investment for commercializing LED lamps and rapid growth of the lighting market in Korea, if LED lamps in street lighting have an economic performance.
The building sector in Korea is one of the key end-use sectors in terms of energy use and accompanying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The sector currently accounts for about one-fifth of economy-wide final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we project a business as usual (BAU) scenario for energy and GHG emissions for the building sector based on the government energy forecast, and then develop a couple of policy scenarios which reflect the current state of energy policy. We compare each policy scenario and some combinations with already-pledged climate policy targets to determine whether energy and climate polices are inherently consistent and, if not, how much of an emission gap exists. The most aggressive energy policy combination can only curb the emissions level at 139 MtCO2e by 2020, which falls 14% short of the climate target of 123 MtCO2e. Beyond 2020, the lowest emissions pathway of the current energy policy can only go as low as 115 MtCO2e by 2035. These findings provide supporting evidence that there is a discrepancy between current energy policy and climate change policy and suggest that effective policy coordination is necessary among government ministries in setting a credible long-term climate policy target.
Recycling uncontaminated excavated construction soil is beneficial because it reduces the costs to abandon excess soil or obtain refill soil from a distant location while alleviating environmental burdens. For this reason, various methods and techniques to support on-site soil reuse have been explored. However, in order to increase the reuse rate, excavated soil should be recycled among different construction sites as well. As a prerequisite for reusing excess soil in this context, the construction schedules, type of soil, trading volume, and incurred costs must be coordinated. In order to consider all of these aspects, earthmoving among construction sites needs to be planned by means of multi-objective optimization. This paper aims to present a practical solution supporting inter-site soil trade by introducing a non-dominated sorting algorithm-II (NSGA-II), a type of multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). A description of the optimization procedure is provided, and computational results are presented to prove the effectiveness of the selected method.
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Edited and published by : ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF JAPAN, ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF KOREA, ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY OF CHINA Produced and listed by : Showa Joho Process Co., Ltd., Japan (-Vol.1), Toyo Agency Inc., Japan (Vol.2-)