Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease caused primarily by obesity, and its incidence among Japanese adults is rapidly rising at 10-40%. Most NAFLD presents as simple steatosis, but some are nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progressing to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is diagnosed by the following three features; (1) alcohol non-consumers (“non-drinkers”), (2) steatosis, and (3) exclusion of liver disease caused by other factors, with non-drinkers including light consumers of alcohol in amounts not engendering alcoholic liver disease. Dietary treatment is the basis of therapy, but evidence concerning exercise therapy has accumulated recently, and its mechanisms have been explained. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an androgenic intermediate metabolite produced by the adrenals and known as an Anti-Aging hormone with an improving effect on insulin resistance, an antioxidant effect, and an antifibrotic effect. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) has been shown to present low levels in advanced stages of NAFLD and diminished DHEA may contribute to progression of NAFLD. Growth hormone (GH) plays a crucial role not only in childhood growth but also in adult metabolic regulation, and adult GH deficiency (GHD) leads to increased visceral fat, dyslipidemia, and decreased QOL. Complicating NAFLD/NASH is a frequent occurrence in adult GHD and is improved by GH replacement therapy. On this basis, aging is an important risk factor for progression of NASH, which suggests a need for discussion of NASH and NAFLD from the perspective of Anti-Aging Medicine.
Anti-Aging Medicine is a theoretical and practical science which aims to ensure the achievement of a long and healthy life. Dental medicine plays an important role in its practice. Given the substantial influence of dental/oral diseases on general health, the maintenance and improvement of oral function promotes not only dental/oral Anti-Aging but also systemic Anti-Aging as well. The current target of Anti-Aging dental medicine is the prevention or slowing down of the age-related decline in oral function by evaluating indicators of oral function, such as dental age, periodontal age, occlusion age, swallowing age, and salivary age. In this symposium, Dr. Kenji Mishima (Department of Dentistry, Tsurumi University), speaking on “Application of Cell Transplantation Therapy to Salivary Gland Dysfunction”, Dr. Masahiro Saito (Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science), speaking on “Role of Tooth Regeneration in Anti-Aging Medicine” and myself, Dr. Narisato Kanemura (Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine), speaking on “Development of a New Periodontal Tissue Regeneration Method Aimed at Anti-Aging Use”, delivered presentations about the current status and future prospects of regenerative dentistry, which aims not only to prevent a decrease in oral function but also to restore it when function is lost, and introduced the latest in regenerative dentistry involving the salivary glands, teeth, oral mucosal epithelia, and periodontal ligaments. In addition, to describe collaboration between dental medicine and ophthalmology, Dr. Takahiro Nakamura (Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University), speaking on “Current Status and Future Prospects of Corneal Regenerative Therapy using Oral Tissue”, introduced the current status and future prospects of corneal regenerative therapy using periodontal mucosal epithelium. Summaries of these lectures are presented here. In the “Dental Regenerative Therapy using Oral Tissues” symposium at the 2011 11th Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Society of Anti-Aging Medicine, the experts were invited to report recent findings on maintenance.
Given that ovarian function declines with age, older women occasionally experience health or fertility problems. Functional change is influenced by physical, mental, oxidative, and glycation stresses, which may lead to a decline in the secretion of hormones, such as melatonin, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Many different factors influence the degradation of ovarian function, and the proper treatment depends on the accurate identification of each patient′s condition. Potential degradation mechanisms include the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by glycation stress, and the activation of receptors for AGEs. Accumulated evidence has suggested that in vitro fertilization success rate can be increased on administration of melatonin and DHEA, or glycation stress therapy, to patients with poor ovarian function. The provision of advanced medical technology to rejuvenate ovarian function should be combined with prophylactic lifestyle guidance, such as that developed by Anti-Aging Medicine, to treat the underlying causes of ovarian functional decline. Here, we review the application of Anti-Aging Medicine to aspects of reproductive medicine.
As the aging population expands rapidly worldwide, it has become increasingly important to identify factors that offer means to promote healthy aging. It is well documented that advancing age is associated with increased body fat and blunted insulin action. Centenarians, who are the best model of successful aging, are a unique exception to this phenomenon. Increasing evidence has documented the preservation of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis along with the very low prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among centenarians. We demonstrated that centenarians have a high serum concentration of adiponectin, which was associated with a favorable metabolic phenotype, including higher levels of HDL-C and lipoprotein lipase, and lower levels of hemoglobin A1c, C-reactive protein, and E-selectin concentrations. These observations suggested that high adiponectin concentration may be potentially important for maintaining health and function and could be a target for Anti-Aging Medicine.