This paper investigated how diversity in pharmaceutical research and development affects the capability for innovation. We conducted a questionnaire survey of the research and development organizations of a pharmaceutical company in Japan and measured three aspects of diversity, which were (1) diversity of knowledge and experience among scientists, (2) diversity of communication, and (3) diversity of information sources. The results of this study indicate that diversity has various dimensions, that each of them has a different impact on the capability for innovation, and that the diversity of scientific specialties is especially important. Therefore, when managing technology, it is important to decide what kind of diversity is required and efficient technology management needs to be coupled with human resources management.
The purpose of this study is to review existing studies on knowledge brokers and communities of practice in order to construct a new concept of knowledge brokers for future study. Previous studies have shown that communities of practice are informally constituted and create knowledge organizations through mutual engagement among the members of companies. The multi-membership of knowledge brokers allows them to play important roles in knowledge organizations. The major findings of this study are as follows. (1) The multi-membership is composed of two factors, "acceptance of diverse opinions" and "knot-working". (2) "Acceptance of diverse opinions" and "knot-working", as factors of the multi-membership, have a direct effect on "integration of diverse opinions". (3)"Integration of diverse opinions" has a direct effect on "the role of knowledge brokers". The proposed theoretical framework has implications for future studies on knowledge brokers, as well as on knowledge transfer research.