Micro-crack development associated with the aging of concrete structure may be concerned in terms of decrease in durability. This study developed a smart artificial lightweight aggregate (ALA) capable of preventing micro-cracks by the internal curing with a reactive solution housed in its pore spaces. Water releasing capability of the smart ALA was first examined through laboratory tests that confirmed the improvement of water retaining capability within concrete. It was shown that water diffusion in concrete with the smart ALA was largely delayed leading to a decrease in micro-crack development and increase in compressive strength and improvement of durability indexes such as carbonation depth and air permeability.
This paper investigates the hydration rate in fly ash blended cement paste and self-healing ability in mortar incorporating fly ash for long-term period. The hydration rate of fly ash and consumption of calcium hydroxide in fly ash paste containing calcium hydroxide reagents were examined at different ages and curing temperatures. Five types of fly ash blended cement paste, each of which with 10% by mass fly ash replacement ratio, were prepared for the acceleration test at 80°C. Four fly ash cement pastes, with two types of fly ash and with fly ash replacement ratios by mass 10% and 30%, were tested to measure the rate of reaction of fly ash in the mixtures. Ten mixtures were tested to evaluate the self-healing ability of mortar incorporating fly ash, considering different types of cement and fly ash. Compressive strength, bending strength, accelerated carbonation depth, after applying freeze/thaw cycling until 60% and 80% relative dynamic modulus of elasticity, and porosity were examined. The experimental results revealed that incorporating fly ash in cement paste would affect the hydration rate of fly ash and consumption of calcium hydroxide. Curing temperature can affect hydration rate, acceleration rate and velocity of reaction rate in fly ash cement paste. Moreover, it is confirmed that self-healing ability, carbonation rate coefficient and the pore volume modification in mortar incorporating fly ash rely on the curing conditions. Finally, it is suggested that the practical fly ash replacement ratio in concrete could be 10% to 15% and 11% to 20% for water to cement ratios 0.50 to 0.55 and 0.55 to 0.60, respectively.