Various environmental issues caused by the quick economic development in China, Japan and South Koreaas, the major powers of the East Asia, have been aggravating in both local and global levels in the past decades. An improvement of people's consciousness and behavior on environment is an indispensable way to resolve environmental issues. This study concentrates on analyzing the actual conditions of environmental consciousness as well as the pro-environmental behaviors in the East Asian countries, and then exploring the possible framework for environmental cooperation. In particular, this paper figures out how the demographic attributes influence people's environmental consciousness using “The East Asian cross-national survey on consciousness toward culture, life, and environment” data collected in 2011. The significant distinctions in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean consciousness toward the present environment and its change, pro-environmental behaviors, the social actors of environmental preservation, and environmental cooperationhave been disclosed by data analysis. Moreover, it has become clear that the difference in cultural background and social system brought a great diversity in people's attitudes and the self-responsibility toward the environmental issues. The formation of an East Asia environmental cooperation framework is difficult at the present stage because of a remarkable gap in people'sconsideration, but an effective method for promoting environmental cooperation should be carefully examined.
To solve environmental problems, it is important to promote pro-environmental behaviors among all citizens. At the same time, it is important to note that the background of citizens' pro-environmental behavior comprises two states of consciousness, economy-oriented consciousness and ecology-oriented consciousness that impact pro-environmental behaviors. Considering demographic factors, this study analyzes which citizens practice pro-environmental behaviors in their daily life and then classifies pro-active citizens according to whether they exhibit consideration based on ecology-oriented consciousness or economy-oriented consciousness. To conduct this research, a social survey was used to collect data from people in China, Japan, and South Korea from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression analyses was used in this study and it proved that women and the elderly are more engaged in pro-environmental behaviors in Japan, South Korea, and Hangzhou, but there were no distinguishing characteristics in Beijing. Moreover, it was also clear that Japanese elderly people highly engaged in pro-environmental behaviors from an ecology-oriented consciousness, while in Hangzhou, more educated people performed pro-environmental behaviors from an ecology-oriented consciousness. In South Korea, highly educated people and those in high-income groups performed pro-environmental behaviors from a more ecology-oriented consciousness.
After World War II, various environmental problems have occurred throughout Japan and South Korea with economic growth and the rapid progress of scientific technology. Furthermore, in China, serious environmental problems such as air pollution and water contamination have been occurring with the rapid economic growth witnessed in recent years. This study aims to analyze the differences in awareness toward environmental problems with developments in scientific technology and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Beijing and Hangzhou.The results obtained from a comparative analysis show that the general public in Beijing and Hangzhou indicated their intention to take action concerning the environmental problems resulted from developments in scientific technology and economic growth. However the general public in Japan and South Korea did not show an active awareness of the environment problems resulting from technological developments. This indicates that there are differences in the rate and scale of scientific technology and economic growth among the three countries.
This paper aims to analyze the characteristic of people's environmental consciousness and the actual condition of their pro-environmental behaviors using a statistical survey data collected in China, South Korea, and Japan in 2011. To clarify the current situation of environmental consciousness, the association between environmental consciousness and pro-environmental behavior, and the impact of demographic attributes in three countries, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression analysis have been employed in categorical data analysis. As for satisfaction with the quality of neighborhood environment, comparing to Chinese and South Korean, Japanese show a higher environmental satisfaction with the cleanliness of air and water, and the green resource. The results obtained from multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression analysis have shown that the women have being performed the pro-environmental behavior more active than men in all the three countries. On the other hand, composing to those with low or medium income, people with high household income did not perform the pro-environmental behavior actively.
Procedures that include flexibility cause fluctuation and other individual differences in experimenter behavior. This study aims to quantify such fluctuation and individual differences in procedures by modelling human behavior. In water measurement, for example, considerable longitudinal data must be compiled, especially monitoring the progress in water height. By analyzing the principal component, the “planning” and “adjustment” components are obtained. The human behavior model was then created to link principal component score to experimenter characteristics. In this model it was assumed that the principal component score was decided by procedural elements such as water velocity, and by contextual elements such as experimenter trial number, final results of previous experiments, and accumulated minutes. Model coefficients are calculated as parameters of each experimenter by fitting the model. Parameter sign revealed that experimenters tend to respond to water velocity change by “adjustment”, and “planning” is used as repeated time increase and failures in previous time. Prediction values were in good agreement with actual values, proving that mathematical modelling of human behavior has the potential for effectively predicting individual behavior.
This study investigates the characteristics of intraindividual variability. Reviewing P-technique factor analysis and dynamic factor analysis (DFA) as applied to the field of psychology, the methodology of multiple-group simultaneous structural equation modeling for DFA was examined. This research was comprised of six participants who voluntary completed questionnaires about adjective neuroticism and extraversion items from the Big Five personality theory, over a period of hundred days. An invariant measurement model across six persons and structure models differed with participants were estimated at the adaptable model fit level from the multi-individual DFA. While observed items were highly variable and differed among participants, the invariant factor structure and time-structure of intraindividual variability were reported for all six participants. The utility of the DFA modeling with multiple-individual to examine the nature of intraindividual variability across individuals was discussed form the perspective of both an idiographic and a nomothetic approaches to the study of behavior.
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