A numerical simulation model for the evaluation of the effectiveness of lifejackets against drowning in tsunamis considering both unsteady water currents and human movement was developed. The Constrained Interpolation Profile-Combined Unified Procedure scheme was combined with the link segment model to simulate interactions between the fluid and subjects in the developed model. The developed model was experimentally validated using a large flume. A manikin laid on blocks was swept down by a tsunami-like water current and caught by a vortex behind the blocks. The developed model accurately reproduced both water currents and the movement of the manikin and was thus considered adequate to analyze the movement of human bodies in tsunamis. The model was then used to analyze the movement of a human body in the same currents but with higher buoyancy, assumed to represent a lifejacket. Consequently, buoyancy greater than a human’s body weight was required to keep the subject afloat; a buoyancy corresponding to the body weight caused the total submergence of the entire subject. Through comparison of forces applied to the body with its movement, it is revealed that a human body receives strong downward force while and immediately after passing over the vortex. These forces are caused due to the attractive pressure at the center of the vortex and downward currents in the downstream side of the vortex. These forces are considered to be remarkable in the evaluation of lifejackets in actual tsunamis.
While bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) shows different phenotypes associated with aortic aneurysm and valvular dysfunction due to aortic stenosis (AS), hemodynamics in patients with stenotic BAVs remains poorly understood. Here we address a study of the effects of valve phenotypes on aortic hemodynamics in different configurations of AS using an image-based subject-specific left ventricle (LV)-aorta integrated computational model. The model was built up by combining both MRI images and realistic motions of aortic valve, mitral valve, and LV apex as well as its contraction and dilatation of a healthy subject. Physiological boundary conditions were given based on a parameter-adjusted 0-1D cardiovascular model. Symmetrical BAV models with mild and severe stenosis were constructed with the orientation angle varying every 15° from 0° to 165° with regards to mitral valve while within a planar disc and the orientation effects on aortic hemodynamics were systematically investigated. Our results revealed that systolic jets in aorta were dominated by a combination of valve orientation and AS. Furthermore the hemodynamic indices of maximum wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and axial energy loss also demonstrated a feature of phenotype-and stenosis-dependency, pointing to the importance of taking into account the valve configuration in clinical decision-making on BAV patients.
A fall can result in fractures, sequelae, or even death in the worst-case scenario. Falls often occur because people misjudge step height and do not lift their feet sufficiently. One strategy to combat this issue is the use of vertical stripes to make stairs appear taller than they really are, which can thus prevent underestimation of the real height. However, the appropriate size of the space between the stripes is different for everyone. This study demonstrates how the intensity of an illusion can influence the height of foot clearance when ascending stairs. We validate the feasibility of using a model for determining the striping that can be used to adapt the pattern to individual differences. We constructed the model based on a contrast-sensitivity function using a Gaussian model. In an experiment, we measured the location of the toe via motion capture as participants climbed stairs. As a result, the relationship between foot-clearance and the spatial frequency approximated the function described by the CSF, Contrast Sensitive Function. The coefficients of determination exceeded 0.9 for one participant, 0.8 for two participant and 0.6 for other two participants. We concluded that the model presented CSF would fit the foot clearance with striped stairs for any individual.