Background: Dizziness is one of the most common complaints in medicine and a frequent symptom among older people. Dizziness has a considerable impact on life quality and is associated with high economic costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dizziness in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors.
Methods: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea. We evaluated data for 12,653 participants (5,450 men and 7,203 women), aged 40 years and above, whom participated in the KNHANES between 2010 and 2012.
Results: In the age group over 40 years old, the 1-year prevalence of dizziness was 20.10%. Dizziness was more prevalent among women (25.18%) than among men (14.57%; P < 0.001) and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, female sex, older age, serum triglyceride level, experience of depression, limited functional status owing to visual acuity impairment, limited physical performance, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perception of stress were independently associated with dizziness.
Conclusions: In our study, the prevalence of dizziness in the general population was 20.10%. There was a stronger relationship between dizziness and physical performance, chronic diseases, and health behaviors compared to that with otologic diseases. Interventions for dizziness should be approached in a multifactorial manner and an understanding of various factors is necessary for the prevention and management of this condition.
Background: The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women). Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use.
Results: The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA.
Conclusions: This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly.
Background: Many epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk, but such findings were suggested to be confounded by smoking. Furthermore, only a few of these studies have been conducted in Asia. Here, we investigated the association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk in one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Japan.
Methods: We investigated the association of coffee drinking and subsequent incidence of lung cancer among 41,727 men and 45,352 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders and by strata of smoking status. Coffee and other dietary intakes were assessed once at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Results: During 1,481,887 person-years of follow-up between 1990 and 2011, a total of 1,668 lung cancer cases were identified. In a multivariate regression model, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of lung cancer (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.82–1.63; Ptrend = 0.285 for men and HR 1.49; 95% CI, 0.79–2.83; Ptrend = 0.942 for women). However, there was a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma (HR 3.52; 95% CI, 1.49–8.28; Ptrend < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our prospective study suggests that habitual consumption of coffee is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer incidence, despite observing a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma.
Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important. For example, the inverse equity hypothesis recognizes that inequality may evolve in stages. New population-based interventions are initially primarily accessed by the affluent and well-educated, so there is an initial increase in socioeconomic inequality (early stage). These inequalities narrow when the deprived population can access the intervention after the affluent have gained maximum benefit (late stage). Following this hypothesis, all tobacco control measures may have the potential to reduce smoking inequality, if they continue for a long term, covering and reaching all socioeconomic subgroups. Re-evaluation of the impact of the interventions on smoking inequality using a long time-course perspective may lead to a favorable next step in equity effectiveness. Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target for the reduction of inequality in health.
Background: Nutrients have been proposed to be related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns that correlated with several nutrients using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to examine the association between extracted dietary patterns and prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population.
Methods: The study population comprised 1,092 Japanese men and women (35–69 years old) who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in Tokushima Prefecture. Dietary patterns were derived with RRR using 46 food items as predictors and six established nutrients (potassium, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, insoluble dietary fiber, and carotene) as response variables. Associations between extracted dietary patterns and MetS were then examined with logistic regression models.
Results: Among the six dietary patterns, dietary pattern 1 (DP1) explained the largest proportion (60.1%) of variance in the six nutrients. Therefore, only DP1 was selected for further analysis. DP1 was characterized by high intake frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto (fermented soybeans), and deep-fried tofu. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant inverse associations were found between DP1 score and MetS (odds ratio [OR] for each quartile: 1.00, 0.58, 0.60, 0.52; Ptrend = 0.02); DP1 and high blood pressure (Ptrend = 0.0002); and DP1 and high blood glucose (Ptrend = 0.02).
Conclusion: A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto, and deep-fried tofu was associated with reduced prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population.
Background: In Japan, the rate of cervical cancer screening is remarkably low, especially among women in their twenties and thirties, when cervical cancer is now increasing dramatically. The aim of this study was to test whether a modified government reminder for 20-year-old women to engage in cervical cancer screening, acting through maternal education and by asking for a maternal recommendation to the daughter to receive the screening, could increase their participation rate.
Methods: In two Japanese cities, 20-year-old girls who had not received their first cervical cancer screening before October of fiscal year 2014 were randomized into two study arms. One group of 1,274 received only a personalized daughter-directed reminder leaflet for cervical cancer screening. In the second group of 1,274, the daughters and their mothers received a combination package containing the same reminder leaflet as did the first group, plus an additional informational leaflet for the mother, which requested that the mother recommend that her daughter undergo cervical cancer screening. The subsequent post-reminder screening rates of these two study arms were compared.
Results: The cervical cancer screening rate of 20-year-old women whose mothers received the information leaflet was significantly higher than that for women who received only a leaflet for themselves (11% vs 9%, P = 0.0049).
Conclusions: An intervention with mothers, by sending them a cervical cancer information leaflet with a request that they recommend that their daughter receive cervical cancer screening, significantly improved their daughters’ screening rate.
Background: We examined the associations of alcohol consumption and liver holidays with all-cause mortality and with mortality due to cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury using a large-scale prospective study in Japan.
Methods: We followed 102,849 Japanese who were aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline for 18.2 years on average, during which 15,203 deaths were reported. Associations between alcohol intake and mortality risk were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model, with analysis by the number of liver holidays (in which a person abstains from drinking for several days a week).
Results: A J-shaped association was observed between alcohol intake and total mortality in men (nondrinkers: reference; occasional drinkers: hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68–0.80; 1–149 g/week: HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71–0.81; 150–299 g/week: HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70–0.80; 300–449 g/week: HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78–0.91; 450–599 g/week: HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83–1.01; and ≥600 g/week: HR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.32) and in women (nondrinkers: reference; occasional: HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70–0.82; 1–149 g/week: HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73–0.88; 150–299 g/week: HR 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74–1.13; 300–449 g/week: HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73–1.48; and ≥450 g/week: HR 1.59; 95% CI, 1.07–2.38). In current drinkers, alcohol consumption was associated with a linear, positive increase in mortality risk from all causes, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease in both men and women, but not heart disease in men. Taking of liver holidays was associated with a lower risk of cancer and cerebrovascular disease mortality in men.
Conclusions: Alcohol intake showed J-shaped associations with the risk of total mortality and three leading causes of death. However, heavy drinking increases the risk of mortality, which highlights the necessity of drinking in moderation coupled with liver holidays.
Background: This study examined the annual prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its associated comorbidities, as well as the prevalence of warfarin therapy in South Korean patients with AF.
Methods: The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database was searched for subjects aged ≥30 years diagnosed with AF from 2002–2013. The prevalence of AF was analyzed by sex and age, as was the current status of warfarin therapy in AF patients according to CHA2DS2-VASc score and comorbidities.
Results: The age-standardized prevalence of AF in men and women was 0.15% and 0.14%, respectively, in 2002, increasing to 0.54% and 0.39%, respectively, in 2013. In 2013, the prevalence of AF in men and women aged 30–39 years was 0.08% and 0.03%, respectively, increasing to 2.35% and 1.71%, respectively, in those in aged ≥60 years. During 2002–2013, the prevalence of AF in men significantly increased among subjects aged ≥30 years and increased in women aged ≥60 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among AF patients were markedly increased during 2002–2013. Of these AF patients, 86.1% had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2; however, only 39.1% of these were receiving warfarin.
Conclusions: The age-standardized prevalence of AF increased 2.89-fold over the 12-year study period. The total number of patients with AF in South Korea has been drastically increasing, due to not only aging society but also increasing age-specific prevalence of AF, especially in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The rate of warfarin therapy increased slightly over the study period but remains low.
Background: Medical circumstances in Japanese patients with cancer of the corpus uteri have greatly changed since the late 1990s, including the introduction of concomitant therapy with taxane and platinum. We evaluated changes in survival rates for this cancer following these advances by analyzing data from population-based cancer registries in Japan.
Methods: Data were available for 8562 cases of cancer of the corpus uteri from six prefectural cancer registries. We defined the two periods of 1993–2000 (1st period) and 2001–2006 (2nd period). Relative survival (RS) in each period was calculated to assess changes using an excess mortality model, with adjustment for age group (15–54, 55–69, and 70–99 years), extent of disease (localized, regional, and distant), and histological subtype.
Results: Overall 5-year RS improved from 77.7% in the 1st period to 80.2% in the 2nd period, with an excess hazard ratio (EHR) of 0.785 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.705–0.873). Five-year RS significantly improved in the group aged 55–69 years, in all groups by extent of disease, and in the endometrioid adenocarcinoma group. In particular, 5-year RS significantly improved in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, from 84.5% to 89.7%, with an EHR of 0.698 (95% CI, 0.560–0.870).
Conclusion: Overall 5-year RS for cancer of the corpus uteri in Japan improved from the 1990s to early 2000s. These improvements might have been aided by the comprehensive medical development of management for this cancer, including the spread of concomitant therapy with taxane and platinum as a standard adjuvant chemotherapy in the early 2000s.
Tomoyuki Hanaoka, Naomi Tamura, Kumiko Ito, Seiko Sasaki, Atsuko Araki, Tamiko Ikeno, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Ito, Hisanori Minakami, Kazutoshi Cho, Toshiaki Endo, Tsuyoshi Baba, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo Sengoku, Reiko Kishi, other members of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health
Background: Prevalence rates of all anomalies classified as birth defects, including those identified before the 22nd gestational week, are limited in published reports, including those from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). In our birth cohort study, we collected the data for all birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation.
Methods: Subjects in this study comprised 19,244 pregnant women who visited one of 37 associated hospitals in the Hokkaido Prefecture from 2003 through 2012, and completed follow-up. All birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation, including 55 marker anomalies associated with environmental chemical exposures, were recorded. We examined parental risk factors for birth defects and the association between birth defects and risk of growth retardation.
Results: Prevalence of all birth defects was 18.9/1,000 births. The proportion of patients with birth defects delivered between 12 and 21 weeks of gestation was approximately one-tenth of all patients with birth defects. Among those with congenital malformation of the nerve system, 39% were delivered before 22 weeks of gestation. All patients with anencephaly and encephalocele were delivered before 22 weeks of gestation. We observed different patterns of parental risk factors between birth defect cases included in ISBDSR and cases not included. Cases included in ISBDSR were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Cases not included in ISBDSR were associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age at term.
Conclusions: Data from our study complemented the data from ICBDSR. We recommend that birth defects not included in ICBDSR also be analyzed to elucidate the etiology of birth defects.
Background: Few studies have investigated the work continuance rate among cancer survivors after return to work (RTW). The objective of this study was to clarify work sustainability after RTW among Japanese male cancer survivors.
Methods: We collected data on male cancer survivors from an occupational health register. Inclusion criteria were as follows: employees who returned to work after an episode of sick leave due to clinically certified cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011.
Results: Of 1,033 male employees who were diagnosed with cancer, 786 employees (76.1%) returned to work after their first episode of sick leave due to cancer. Work continuance rates among all subjects were 80.1% 1 year after RTW and 48.5% 5 years after RTW. The mean duration of work after RTW was 4.5 years. The work continuance rates varied significantly by cancer type. The “Lung” and “Hepatic, Pancreatic” cancer groups had the shortest duration of work (0.9 year after RTW).
Conclusions: Of workers who returned to work after their first episode of leave after cancer, 50% continued to work after 5 years in large-scale companies. There was a steep decrease in work continuance rates during the first year after RTW, with considerable differences according to cancer site.
Background: Japanese rice cake (“mochi”) is a major cause of food-choking accidents in Japan. However, the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) due to suffocation caused by rice cakes is poorly understood.
Methods: OHCA data from 2005 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based OHCA registry in Osaka Prefecture. Patients aged ≥20 years who experienced OHCA caused by suffocation that occurred before the arrival of emergency-medical-service (EMS) personnel were included. Patient characteristics, prehospital interventions, and outcomes were compared based on the cause of suffocation (rice cake and non-rice-cake). The primary outcome was 1-month survival after OHCA.
Results: In total, 46 911 adult OHCAs were observed during the study period. Of the OHCAs, 7.0% (3,294/46,911) were due to suffocation, with choking due to rice cake as the cause in 9.5% of cases (314/3,294), and of these, 24.5% (77/314) occurred during the first 3 days of the New Year. In crude analysis, 1-month survival was 17.2% (54/314) in those with suffocation caused by rice cake and 13.4% (400/2,980) in those with suffocation due to other causes. In the multivariable analysis for all-cause suffocation, younger age, arrest witnessed by bystanders, and earlier EMS response time were significantly related to better 1-month survival.
Conclusion: Approximately 10% of OHCAs due to suffocation were caused by rice-cake choking, and 25% of these occurred during the first 3 days of the New Year. Further efforts for establishing preventive measures as well as improving the early recognition of choking and encouraging bystanders to call EMS sooner are needed.
Background: Survival rate is used to develop cancer control plans. However, there are limitations and biases when interpreting patient survival rate data. This study aimed to identify and account for potential biases and/or limitations on estimating survival rate to enable more effective control of cancer.
Methods: The authors searched PubMed from December 2010 to December 2015 for articles that investigated or described biases in estimating patient survival using cancer registries. Articles that only described the tendency of survival rate and investigated relationships between patient characteristics, treatment, and survival rate were excluded.
Results: In total, 50 articles met the inclusion criteria. The identified potential biases were categorized into three areas, as follows: 1) the quality of registry data (eg, the completeness of cancer patients, accuracy of data, and follow-up rates); 2) limitations related to estimated methods of survival rates (eg, misclassification of cause of death for cause-specific survival rate or a lack of comparability of background mortality for relative survival rate); and 3) the comparability of survival rates among different groups (eg, age-adjustment or patients with multiple cancers).
Conclusion: We concluded that survival rate can be suitable for answering questions related to health policy and research. Several factors should be considered when interpreting survival rates estimated using cancer registries.
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes many deaths. Inequalities in SHS have been reported in several countries; however, the evidence in Asian countries is scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and SHS at home and the workplace/school among non-smoking Japanese adults.
Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Miyagi Prefectural Health Survey 2014 were analyzed. Self-reported questionnaires were randomly distributed to residents ≥20 years of age and 2,443 (92.8%) responded. The data of the 1,738 and 1,003 respondents were included to the analyses for SHS in the past month at home and at the workplace/school, respectively. Ordered logistic regression models considering possible confounders, including knowledge of the adverse health effects of tobacco, were applied.
Results: The prevalence of SHS at home and the workplace/school was 19.0% and 39.0%, respectively. Compared with ≥13 years of education, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SHS at home were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.42–2.64) for 10–12 years and 3.00 (95% CI, 1.95–4.60) for ≤9 years; those for SHS at the workplace/school were 1.80 (95% CI, 1.36–2.39) and 3.82 (95% CI, 2.29–6.36), respectively. Knowledge of the adverse health effects of tobacco was significantly associated with lower SHS at home (OR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91–0.98) but it was not associated with SHS at the workplace/school (OR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98–1.06).
Conclusions: Social inequalities in SHS existed among Japanese non-smoking adults. Knowledge about tobacco was negatively associated with SHS at home but not at workplace/school.
Background: Although several studies have shown that blood type O is associated with increased risk of peptic ulcer, few studies have investigated these associations in Japan. We sought to investigate the association between the ABO blood group and risk of gastroduodenal ulcers (GDU) using combined analysis of both retrospective and prospective data from a large cohort study of Japanese women, the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (JNHS; n = 15,019).
Methods: The impact of the ABO blood group on GDU risk was examined using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results: Compared with women with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB), women with blood type O had a significantly increased risk of GDU from birth (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04–1.34). Moreover, the highest cumulative incidence of GDU was observed in women born pre-1956 with blood type O. In a subgroup analysis stratified by birth year (pre-1956 or post-1955), the multivariable-adjusted HR of women with blood type O was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.00–1.49) and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98–1.35) in the pre-1956 and post-1955 groups, respectively.
Conclusion: In this large, combined, ambispective cohort study of Japanese women, older women with blood type O had a higher risk of developing GDU than those with other blood types.
Background: Although reducing socioeconomic inequalities in depression is necessary, their associated factors have rarely been studied. This study aimed to screen the potential contextual factors associated with income-based inequality in older adults’ depression.
Methods: Using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) of 2013, we conducted an ecological study covering 77 communities in Japan. Our measures of socioeconomic inequalities in depression were the slope index of inequalities (SII) and the relative index of inequalities (RII) of the prevalence of depressive symptoms across three income levels. We categorized available community-level factors, including socio-demographic factors, social participation, social relationships, subjective changes in the residential area, and the built environment. These indicators were aggregated from individual responses of 51,962 and 52,958 physically independent men and women, respectively, aged 65 years or more. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to explore factors with statistical significance of a two-tailed P-value less than 0.05.
Results: Factors associated with shallower gradients in depression for men included higher participation in local activities and reception or provision of social support, which did not show significant association among women. Perceived increases in unemployment and economic inequalities were positively associated with larger inequalities in both genders (P < 0.05). The built environment did not indicate any significant association.
Conclusions: A community environment fostering social activities and relationships might be associated with smaller income-based inequalities in depression. There is a need for more deterministic studies for planning of effective community interventions to address socioeconomic inequalities in depression.
Background: Good quality measures of Japanese adults’ sedentary behaviors are needed to accurately assess correlates of specific sedentary behaviors. The present study assessed criterion validity of total sedentary behavior and test-retest reliability of six domain-specific sedentary behaviors.
Methods: We administered a questionnaire, based on previous studies, that measured domain-specific sedentary behaviors. To examine validity, agreement between self-reported time spent in sedentary behaviors from the questionnaire and objectively-measured sedentary time using accelerometers was compared among 392 adults (aged 40–64 years) in two Japanese cities. For reliability, a 2-week interval test-retest was administered to a convenience sample of 34 participants.
Results: The correlation between total self-reported and objectively measured sedentary time was significant (all P < 0.001) and fair-to-good for workdays (ρ = 0.57) and whole week (ρ = 0.49), but was low for non-workdays (ρ = 0.23). The difference between the two measures was significant for whole week (z = −2.25, P = 0.03) and non-workdays (z = −5.50, P < 0.001), but was not significant for workdays (z = −0.60, P = 0.55). There was a significant positive association between the difference in the two measures and the average of these two measures (workdays: r = 0.53; non-workdays: r = 0.45; and whole week: r = 0.54, all P < 0.001). There was fair-to-good test-retest reliability of total sedentary time for each domain (workdays: interclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.77, non-workdays: ICC = 0.53, and whole week: ICC = 0.7; all P < 0.01).
Conclusions: The scale of domain-specific sedentary behaviors is reliable for estimating where and for what purpose Japanese adults spend their sedentary time, and total sedentary time is valid for workdays and the whole week.
Background: Data on the effect of physical activity intensity on depression is scarce. We investigated the prospective association between intensity of leisure-time exercise and risk of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers.
Methods: The participants were 29,052 employees (24,653 men and 4,399 women) aged 20 to 64 years without psychiatric disease including depressive symptoms at health checkup in 2006–2007 and were followed up until 2014–2015. Details of leisure-time exercise were ascertained via a questionnaire. Depressive states were assessed using a 13-item questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of depressive symptoms was estimated using Cox regression analysis.
Results: During a mean follow-up of 5.8 years with 168,203 person-years, 6,847 workers developed depressive symptoms. Compared with workers who engaged in no exercise during leisure-time (0 MET-hours per week), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with >0 to <7.5, 7.5 to <15.0, and ≥15.0 MET-hours of leisure-time exercise were 0.88 (0.82–0.94), 0.85 (0.76–0.94), and 0.78 (0.68–0.88) among workers who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.82–1.06), 0.82 (0.68–0.98), and 0.83 (0.71–0.98) among workers who engaged in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.96 (0.80–1.15), 0.80 (0.67–0.95), and 0.76 (0.66–0.87) among workers who engaged in both moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise with adjustment for age, sex, lifestyles, work-related and socioeconomic factors, and body mass index. Additional adjustment for baseline depression score attenuated the inverse association, especially among those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise alone.
Conclusions: The results suggest that vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise would prevent depressive symptoms among Japanese workers.
Background: We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol drinking patterns and the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods: We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014. The participants were aged ≥30 years and had no previous diagnosis of DM. High-risk drinking was defined as alcohol consumption of ≥7 glasses at a sitting for men, and ≥5 glasses for women. After adjusting for confounding factors, a polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of drinking patterns with IFG and DM.
Results: For men, high-risk drinking was associated with higher odds ratios (ORs) of IFG (2–4/month, OR 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–2.04; 2–3/week, OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.38–2.33; and ≥4/week, OR 2.24; 95% CI, 1.65–3.03) and of DM (2–4/month, OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.20–3.77; 2–3/week, OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.05–3.03; and ≥4/week, OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.72–5.17). For women, high-risk drinking was associated with higher risk of IFG (2–4/month, OR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04–2.21; 2–3/week, OR 3.19; 95% CI, 2.20–4.64; and ≥4/week, OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.23–4.06), but not of DM, compared with non-high-risk drinkers who consumed alcohol ≤1 day/month. Non-high-risk drinkers who consumed alcohol ≥4 days/week had higher ORs of DM in men, but lower ORs of DM in women compared with non-high risk drinkers who consumed alcohol ≤1 day/month.
Conclusions: Compared with non-high-risk alcohol drinking, even occasional high-risk alcohol drinking was associated with a higher risk of IFG in men and women, and DM in men. Nearly daily non-high-risk alcohol drinking was associated with a higher risk of DM in men and lower risk of DM in women.
Background: The role of passive smoking on cervical carcinogenesis remains controversial. We investigated the association of passive smoking with the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer.
Methods: The study recruited 1,322 women, aged 18–65 with normal cytology (n = 592), CIN1 (n = 420), CIN2/3 (n = 165), and cervical cancer (n = 145) from 2006 to 2009. This study is a cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data from the Korean human papillomavirus (HPV) cohort study. Detailed information on smoking behaviors and lifestyles were collected using questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs).
Results: Passive smoking was not statistically related to the risk of CINs and cervical cancer. However, passive smoking among non-smokers was associated with higher CIN 1 risk (OR 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.18), compared to not passive smoking, after adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyles, and oncogenic-HPV infection status. CIN 1 risk increased with longer time exposed to passive smoking (P for trend <0.0003). Multivariate odds of <2 hours/day of passive smoking and that of ≥2 hours/day of passive smoking were 2.48 (95% CI, 1.49–4.14) and 2.28 (95% CI, 1.21–4.26) for CIN 1, compared to not passive smoking.
Conclusions: This study found that passive smoking among non-smoking women is associated with the risk of CIN 1.
Background: The potential mechanism underlying the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remains unclear. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the potential role of the adipokines in the association between the MHO phenotype and hypertension in children and adolescents.
Methods: A total of 1184 participants at baseline were recruited from a cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MS) components. The levels of the adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, were measured.
Results: MHO individuals had higher leptin levels (11.58 ug/L vs 1.20 ug/L), leptin/adiponectin ratio (1.18 vs 0.07), and lower adiponectin (11.65 ug/L vs 15.64 ug/L) levels compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals (all P < 0.05). Compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals, the prevalence of high leptin levels (26.5% vs 0.4%), low adiponectin levels (17.9% vs 6.3%) and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio (26.0% vs 2.1%) was higher in MHO individuals (all P < 0.01). The MHO individuals with abnormal adipokines were significantly more likely to developing hypertension (high leptin, relative risk 11.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–103.35; and high leptin/adiponectin ratio, relative risk 9.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–87.97) compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals with normal adipokine levels.
Conclusions: The abnormal adipokine levels contribute to the increased hypertension risk in MHO children and adolescents. The non-traditional risk factors should be highlighted in MHO children and adolescents in clinical practice and research.
Background: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device.
Methods: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups.
Results: Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were −0.55 in the intervention group and −0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088); respective sodium excretion changes were −18.5 mmol/24 hours and −8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528); and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and −1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300). No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention.
Conclusions: Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in “pure self-management” settings, indicating further needs to study an effective method to enhance the synergetic effect of dietary programs and self-monitoring practice to achieve the reduction. However, we cannot deny the possibility of reducing sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device.
Many epidemiological studies have assessed the genetic risk of having undiagnosed or of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the quantitative association of cumulative risk alleles (RAs) of such SNPs with T2DM risk has been unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to review the strength of the association between cumulative RAs and T2DM risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that examined odds ratios (ORs) for T2DM in relation to genetic profiles. Logarithm of the estimated OR (log OR) of T2DM for 1 increment in RAs carried (1-ΔRA) in each study was pooled using a random-effects model. There were 46 eligible studies that included 74,880 cases among 249,365 participants. In 32 studies with a cross-sectional design, the pooled OR for T2DM morbidity for 1-ΔRA was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.19). In 15 studies that had a longitudinal design, the OR for incident T2DM was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.08–1.13). There was large heterogeneity in the magnitude of log OR (P < 0.001 for both cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies). The top 10 commonly used genes significantly explained the variance in the log OR (P = 0.04 for cross-sectional studies; P = 0.006 for longitudinal studies). The current meta-analysis indicated that carrying 1-ΔRA in T2DM-associated SNPs was associated with a modest risk of prevalent or incident T2DM, although the heterogeneity in the used genes among studies requires us to interpret the results with caution.
Takehiro Michikawa, Hiroshi Nitta, Shoji F. Nakayama, Shin Yamazaki, Tomohiko Isobe, Kenji Tamura, Eiko Suda, Masaji Ono, Junzo Yonemoto, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Yayoi Kobayashi, Go Suzuki, Toshihiro Kawamoto, the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group
Background: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), known as Ecochil-Chosa in Japan, is a nationwide birth cohort study investigating the environmental factors that might affect children’s health and development. We report the baseline profiles of the participating mothers, fathers, and their children.
Methods: Fifteen Regional Centres located throughout Japan were responsible for recruiting women in early pregnancy living in their respective recruitment areas. Self-administered questionnaires and medical records were used to obtain such information as demographic factors, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, environmental exposure, medical history, and delivery information. In the period up to delivery, we collected bio-specimens, including blood, urine, hair, and umbilical cord blood. Fathers were also recruited, when accessible, and asked to fill in a questionnaire and to provide blood samples.
Results: The total number of pregnancies resulting in delivery was 100,778, of which 51,402 (51.0%) involved program participation by male partners. Discounting pregnancies by the same woman, the study included 95,248 unique mothers and 49,189 unique fathers. The 100,778 pregnancies involved a total of 101,779 fetuses and resulted in 100,148 live births. The coverage of children in 2013 (the number of live births registered in JECS divided by the number of all live births within the study areas) was approximately 45%. Nevertheless, the data on the characteristics of the mothers and children we studied showed marked similarity to those obtained from Japan’s 2013 Vital Statistics Survey.
Conclusions: Between 2011 and 2014, we established one of the largest birth cohorts in the world.
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a common nosocomial infection. However, the effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in reducing CAUTI in cerebral infarction patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial catheters protect against CAUTI in cerebral infarction patients.
Methods: We identified 27,548 patients from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination Database who had been admitted from April 1, 2012 through March 31, 2014 for acute management of cerebral infarction and had used at least an indwelling urethral catheter. We extracted data on patient sex, age, comorbidity, length of stay, activities of daily living (ADL), surgery, hospital case volume, and catheter type. We defined CAUTI as a urinary tract infection arising during admission. We performed multi-level logistic regression analysis to analyze the reduction in CAUTI using antimicrobial catheters.
Results: The rate of CAUTI was 8.8% and 8.3% in the control and antimicrobial catheter groups, respectively. Significant risk factors for CAUTI were age, diabetes requiring insulin therapy, low ADL score, and long hospitalization. Incidence rate was significantly lower in operated cases and those treated with tissue plasminogen activator. For all cases overall, the use of an antimicrobial catheter was not associated with a lower CAUTI rate. However, use was associated with a lower rate of CAUTI in diabetic patients on insulin.
Conclusions: Antimicrobial catheter use was not associated with a lower incidence rate of CAUTI in acute cerebral infarction patients. However, stratified analysis suggested that use was associated with a lower incidence in diabetic patients on insulin.