In a preliminary study, we investigated the effects of remote communication with family and friends by using a video-call application on older adults with dementia. Two older adults with moderate dementia living in a long-term care service center and two hospitalized older adults with severe dementia participated in this study. We assessed the activation of the prefrontal cortex, stress conditions, and the arousal of positive emotional expressions in the participants. Results indicated activation of the prefrontal cortex and relaxation when the participants communicated using the video-call application. Moreover, expressions of happiness quickly appeared when communicating with children and friends. These results suggest that remote communication with family and friends using a video-call application could be a tool for supporting the successful aging in older adults with dementia.
Matsumoto, Takenaka, and Takaya (2003) developed the Self-determined Motivation Scale for Exercise (SMSE) based on the self-determination theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 2002; Ryan & Deci, 2017) to assess behavioral regulation of exercise. The SMSE evaluates external, introjected, and identified regulations, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. The SMSE’s usefulness has been established in several studies. However, one limitation of the scale is the absence of a subscale assessing integrated regulation, which embodies the most self-determined form of extrinsic motivation in the SDT’s continuum. Previous studies on exercise motivation conducted in Japan have been unclear about the consequences of integrated regulation of exercise. This study evaluated the validity and reliability of a revised SMSE (SMSE-2), which includes items assessing integrated regulation. Undergraduates (n=995) completed the SMSE-2. The results of confirmatory factor analysis of their responses supported the six-factor SMSE-2 model (χ2(194)=1077.59, p<.01; CFI=.92, NNFI=.90, RMSEA=.07, 90% CI=.06–.07). Moreover, the acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and invariance of the scale between gender was demonstrated. These results supported the usefulness of the revised scale for both genders.