It has been indicated that “The Japanese Landscape Theory” by Shiga shigetaka, which was published in 1894, was the key to change the way Japanese see natural landscape. The change occurred during this period seems to have resulted in the designation of National Parks in 1930s, and further investigation of the background is required. This paper examines the transition of landscape photographs published in the “Taiyo” magazine, which is considered to be one of the factors influencing the way of seeing natural landscapes in Japan by distributing a large quantity of printed landscape photographs to the public. As the “Taiyo” magazine started to publish photographs selected by competitions, photographs of unidentified landscape increased in number after 1902, whereas “Meisyo” had been mainly featured before around 1900. This paper suggests that the distribution of photographs which had been influenced by landscape painting, hence emphasizing artistic beauty of landscapes, had changed the way general readers see natural landscapes.
Since1989, about 60% reproduction paintings in the word are produced in Dafen village (Shenzhen) and exported to all over the world. In 2004, Dafen oil painting village was registered by Chinese government and got support from the central government and Shenzhen government as a successful example of "cultural industry". Influenced by the world financial crisis in 2008, Dafen oil painting village also advocated to original creations from a production base of reproduction pictures. This research aims to clarify the changes in the development, management, and policies of Dafen oil painting village. The objective of the research is to consider the state of Dafen oil painting village from the perspective of the Chinese contemporary art. The results show that even if with advocating original creation by the government, because of giving priority to the short-term profit, the boundary of reproduction picture production and original work creation is ambiguous. As an art district managed by government, support is desirable in an art creation and various expressions besides the profit for a policy. To keep the artistry of Dafen as an art district, each administrative structure is shared clearly and the management added to the special quality of both of original work and reproduction picture are necessary.
This study examines the changes in administrative entities of Akashi Castle park and their background. Early in the Meiji era (1868–1912) a request to turn the site into a park was made by a British man, and the castle buildings were partially demolished. In 1881 local volunteers submitted and received approval to turn the site into a park to preserve the remaining castle buildings. They formed an organization to maintain the park in 1889. Akashi gun (county), believing private administration inappropriate, assumed administrative responsibility of the park in 1896. In 1897 Akashi-gun offered the park as the site for an imperial villa. The park came under the administration of the Imperial Household Department the following year and was closed to the public. Ten years passed and no villa was built. The government of Hyogo prefecture, Akashi-gun, and Akashi-cho (town) each requested that the site be made a park once again to open up the Akashi Castle site to local residents. At the end of 1917 Hyogo prefecture applied to the central government to lease the site, and approval was received the following year. A budget was approved, improvements were made, and a magnificent opening ceremony was held.
Higashiyama Park in old Taiza Town in the Tango region of Kyoto Prefecture is a private park built by Genzo Tani in the Taisho-Early Showa period. This study clarifies the establishment process，design and way of use of Higashiyama Park which was when the urban park system was established by landscape architecture. As a result of document analysis, Higashiyama park was made as a contribution to the local community where Tani was born. Parks have been selected as a way of contributing to the public, and were considered as recreational places for increasing public health. The Japanese garden style was adapted to Higashiyama Park, although Tani knew of modern urban parks in other areas of Kyoto and Osaka. The park concept was affected by Maruyama Park (Kyoto) derived from pre-modern scenic places. In his idea, establishment of the park was not a purpose but a mean of contribution to his birthplace. Hence, usage was important requirements for Higashiyama Park and the restaurant of the park were considered as appropriate to urban parks. Tani offered a recreational place, however, Higashiyama park is no longer existence now by the snow disaster on 1963 after Tani was dead.
This study aimed to examine the planning thought and practice that went into the designing of private gardens by Yasuhei Nagaoka. Based on Nagaoka’s statement, in this study, his works were verified using the design documents. A precedent study focused on his planning thought for parks among his works, but the private gardens required unlike these thought. In other words, since private gardens are planned based on architectures that is clearly used to live in, he paid attention to creating harmony between the gardens and the architectures. This is seen from the layouts described in most of architecture places in the gardens planned by him. In particular, most of Nagaoka’s designs were realized in the garden he planned for the residence of Marquis Ikeda in Harajuku. He tried using his planning thought on many private gardens, but these could not be carried out completely. Consequently, it was possible to conclude that the garden of Marquis Ikeda's residence is a typical example of a private garden among his works.
The aim of this study is obtain the character of the rock garden of the Botanical Gardens attached to Tokyo Imperial University College of Science (Koishikawa Botanical Gardens). In 1906, Koishikawa Botanical Gardens plan of re-development with beautifully landscaped like a park was decided by Matsumura director. The rock garden shaped like Kew Gardens was almost completed in 1915. The landscape gardening of the rock garden was gradually pushed forward afterwards, and, in 1922, the slope with Kuroboku and spray device on the 2,800 square meters site was made by Nakai gardening chief and Ihara engineer. The rock garden with the slope on both sides of the pathway and 400 kinds of alpine plants was almost completed and was designated as the special observation facilities as well as the greenhouse in 1923.
Areas with white sand are characteristic of temple gardens in Kyoto, but the halt of the production of Shirakawa-suna (sand obtained from local white granite) in the 1980s led to their change or loss. This study aimed to clarify the position and expressive form of white sand areas qualitatively and quantitatively, and to grasp their characteristics in the garden composition of different periods. Based on 18 garden-related documents, we selected 68 gardens with white sand areas which were built no later than the Showa period. Then we conducted field investigations and calculated the occupancy rates of white sand areas in each garden. Most gardens were built in Edo or Showa era, belonging to the Rinzai School. Three positions (the whole garden, the front of garden and the middle of garden) were found. The white sand areas in main Front gardens of hojo abbot’s quarters showed the highest average occupancy rates, followed by other gardens of the hojo, and gardens of shoin study hall. Raking patterns were found in over 90% of gardens, while sand terrace and sand pile were seen in 8 gardens. Combination with other elements such as stones and moss was found in 36 gardens. The white sand gardens were formed in Muromachi era, developed in Edo era, decreased from Meiji era, and rose again in Showa era while the ritual function of hojo front gardens started to decline.
This study focuses on the spatial features of Old Summer Palace in China from the perspective of position relationship between hill-water and architecture. The 40 gardens in Old Summer Palace were divided into 4 groups according to the relationship with the surrounding, sight orientation and the location of hill and water. In Group A, these gardens have several space types and were surrounded by hills and waters which make the garden space separated from surrounding. These gardens in Group B form closed garden space by architectural which were closed to environment rather than the construction of hill and water. These gardens in Group C have opening garden space and multi-directional sight by few hills surrounded and opening architectural composition. The gardens of Group D were surrounded by a little hills and sight orientation which make them look opening appropriately. Overall, not only the composition of architecture, but also the construction of hill and water in Old Summer Palace were affected by the traditional geomancy culture, and the innovative techniques were also applied in this garden especially in the residence area.
Designated Place of Scenic Beauty "Murin-an Garden" was built between 1894 to 1898. The garden was created by Jihei Ogawa VII (7th), under Aritomo Yamagata’s instructions. This naturalistic garden received high ratings ever since it was created. Old photographs of Murin-an were newly found showing old sceneries of Murin-an, photographs are owned by the General Yamagata Memorial Foundation. This paper analyzes these old photographs to enhanced our knowledge of the former scenery of Murin-an, and to decipher how the garden was utilized in the past.Scenery in old photos will be compared with the current scenery, as well as the utilization differences of the garden.In these old photographs, are the two young pine trees that the Meiji Emperor gifted Aritomo, called "Onshi Chisho," but after they wilted and died, new pines were planted in replacement. The huge scenic rock, "Daigo-no-Ohishi" was brought from the Daigo mountains, but currently hard to see because of tree branches. Other differences in scenery between the old photos and today include scenery around the tea house, the trees growing around the garden border, and the looks of the garden path. Hence, referring to old photographs assist the analysis of garden transitions.
Sakuteiki is Japan’s oldest treatise on creating a garden. The Old Testament is an important scripture for followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both books deal with the concept that stones have a significant influence on people. This i s why these books contain “prohibitions.” This study examines how prohibited stone settings are described in these books. The concept of “basic pattern,” which is the key idea of this study, is introduced. The basic pattern is rhetorical: the censorious words “do not do this” appear first, followed by a description of the negative consequences if the prohibition is not heeded. The sentences that display this pattern and their related expressions are all extracted and listed in a table. In this experiment, the Japanese Old Testament was used, and the following results were revealed. Sakuteiki used a caption meaning “prohibition,” which indicated that the following sentences depicted the prohibited ways of setting stones. Under this caption, the basic pattern was develo ped through several variations, but they did not describe actual misfortunes that had happened. On the other hand, The Old Testament displays the following rhetorical pattern: the prohibited ways of setting stones are depicted in several ways, using the basic pattern, before the old Israelites see the actual stones. This is described as a prophecy. Then, historical writings are presented, attesting to the authenticity of the prophecy, and the basic pattern is precisely executed, showing the benefits of strictly observing the prohibition.
Some Christian churches are regarded as tourism objects in Japan. Therefore, it needs the tourism management with maintaining the values both as religious and cultural properties. Such values are created by daily church activities by the church members. This research aims to clarify the changes of church activities in four churches in Hakodate city, Hokkaido while they became tourism objects and discuss the proper management of Christian churches regarded as tourism objects in Japan. As a result, guidebooks and tourism plan by a city government show that these churches have been seen as tourism objects with the image of “exotic”. The amount of church activities which are easy or possible for visitors to participate has increased. On the other hand, some churches separate visitors from church members. Other churches recommend that both of them communicate in some activities. These attitudes depend on the principle of each church and the church members’ status. It can be said that each Christian church has not only meaning as the place of belief in common but also their own meanings along with each principle. Tourist’s activities should be adapted to the meanings which each church has originally and then the image added by outsiders.
Laser measurement is currently applied to several tasks such as plumbing management, road investigation through mobile mapping systems, and elevation model utilization through airborne LiDAR. Effective laser measurement methods have been well-documented in civil engineering, however few attempts have been made to establish equally effective methods in landscape engineering. By using point cloud data acquired through laser measurement, the data for trees are contained each components of parts (branches, leaves and trunk), which can be recognized detail form of the trees. Therefore, this study focuses on expression of detail 3D model for trees expressing by using the point cloud data, and considers the construction of a library of garden trees extracted from point cloud data. The library would serve as a resource for creating new gardens and simulating gardens prior to conducting repairs. Finally, Models created using point cloud data are informative because simply shaped garden features such as trees are often seen in the 3D industry.
This research was aimed at analyzing growth characteristics of zelkova trees（Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino）pruned with 2 kinds of methods, "Kiritsume" and "Sukashi". "Kiritsume" is a pruning method to cut branches short. "Sukashi" is a pruning method to cut back branches at a diverging point, a traditional Japanese pruning technique. 15 trees approximately 350cm in height was used in this study to measure their growth for one year. 5 trees were pruned with "Kiritsume" and other 5 trees were pruned with "Sukashi", and the others were not pruned as control plots. The results showed that trees pruned with "Kiritsume" had a tendency to extend many branches from trunk. This result suggested that "Kiritsume" was a method to disturb tree form and to cause a crowd of branches and leaves inside a tree crown. The results also showed that pruning with "Kiritsume" weakened tree roots. Because trees pruned with “Kiritsume" was smaller in dry weight of current roots than control trees. These results suggested that "Sukashi” was a pruning technique not to disturb tree form and weaken tree roots, but to keep tree size and control tree vigor.
In Hakodate City, since 1869, many historical conflagrations have occurred, particularly during 1907, 1921, and 1934. They have resulted in massive damage, including damage by air-raids during WWII. Approximately 80 to 100 years have passed since the last conflagration; therefore, only a few physical and archived historical reminders in the form of photographs and books remain. Additionally, few old residents still personally remember the war. Thus, damaged trees are now valuable historical relics; however, their number and distribution are unknown. Therefore, we conducted research to address this concern and obtained the following results.1) We identified 10 conflagration-damaged trees, 17 requiring more evidence, and one war-damaged tree, mainly concentrated in public parks, roads, and on the edges of past burned out areas. Conversely, temple precincts contained few such trees. 2) The established method of identifying war-damaged trees also applies to conflagration-damaged trees. 3) Due to very little remaining physical evidence to guide the identification of damaged trees, regional historical books helped with identification. Thus, it is important to record, store, and manage plant regional historical databases, and we believe that providing open public access can facilitate the preservation of urban histories.
We aimed to examine the management method regarding the facilities of Yokohama Zoo based on visitor satisfaction. We employed a questionnaire survey to examine visitor satisfaction in the “African Savannah” area of Yokohama Zoo; the satisfaction trends for weekdays and holidays were analyzed separately. Results show that the majority of visitors comprised middle- to old-aged women on weekdays and families on holidays. Further, visitor satisfaction was generally high, especially in terms of “cleanliness.” We also found that visitor satisfaction on weekdays was primarily affected by “variety of animals” and “direction of space,” besides some factors excluded from the survey for holidays, such as the “learning effect,” “ease of walking on walkways,” and “maintenance of landscape plants.” The factors affecting visitor satisfaction on holidays also included “va riety of animals” and “direction of space,” in addition to some factors excluded from the survey for weekends - “feeling of cleanliness,” “descriptions on explanatory signboards,” and “maintenance of rest facilities.” Based on the above results, we reviewed the management method of the zoo to improve visitor satisfaction and, by extension, to increase the number of visitors.
This study evaluated the situation and of the maintenance of the green open space as an example of Maebashi-city in order to consider the policy. The results were as follows; (1) It clarified the questionnaire survey of inhabitants by the evaluation about the green open space to have got the situation that was higher in the merger district area than the before merger district area. (2) It clarified the relationship between "the satisfaction of green open space" and "the evaluation of green open space" in the model by the regression analysis. Particularly, Authors found the important the factor which the green open space of the farm village, the green open space of huge tree group, the green space of history, and the green space of undeveloped woodland near populated area. (3) About the importance of the green policy, authors compared to the before merger district area and the merger district area at same time they compared 60 years of age more and less than 60 years old. The result, the merger district area was able to grasp the tendency that regarded eco-systemic of the green open space as important than the before merger district area.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the methodology of reevaluating small-scale urban parks, which are often considered as having little value for children’s playground in urban area, from the viewpoint of nursery school’s usage, and to discuss the issue of appropriate state of small-scale urban parks. In this study, questionnaire survey and interview survey to nursery schools were applied, for the purpose of illustrating current states of small-scale urban park usage of nursery schools. Moreover, spatial analysis using GIS was applied, aiming at clarifying the details of nursery school’s small-scale urban park usage. As a result, 80 urban parks which had less than 1,000 square meters were seen in survey area, and 12 cases were usually used by infants in nursery schools. Besides, interview survey revealed that the small-scale urban park had value for infants, in that they could play in small-scale urban parks safely, because children of elementary schools have little interests such small-scale urban parks and seldom use those facilities for their playgrounds.
In 1930’s, Tokyo City and Tokyo Railway Bureau had developed “Shimin-Kenko-ro”（Hiking Trails for Citizens） in the suburbs of Tokyo. This paper aims to clarify the implications and outcomes of the project as a tourism promotion project that targets for urban residents. We conducted literature survey（maps, booklets, guidebooks, administrative documents, travel and hiking magazines and newspapers）, focusing on （1） the development of project, （2） the stakeholders and their goal and policies and （3） the social background. We found that this project promoted multi-sectional or inter-organizational tourism development for Tokyo City. It was related to the policy of Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Welfare, and both welfare and tourism section were concerned with this project in Tokyo City government. Tokyo Railway Bureau and other railway companies cooperated to develop the hiking trails and discount train ticket for hikers. For Local governments and other organizations in Tama, this project was a practice for the tourism development in Keienchi and Scenic zones of Tokyo Park System.
Traces of human activities are abundant in Japanese national parks due to the zoning system. However, while the national park system has usually been focused on protection of natural sceneries and biodiversity, there is little discussion about assessment of the social and cultural dimensions of local societies. This research reviews the national park designation process of Yoshino, an area around Mt. Yoshino which is part of the Yoshino and Kumano National Park, to analyze how different landscapes of Yoshino were recognized at different stages of the process, and how social and cultural contexts, namely mountain worship called Shugen-do and local traditional forestry, were assessed. Resources related to the designation in the late 1920’s and 1930’s were used in the study, including minutes of the National Park committee meetings on the national parks selection, a document of a local request to the Imperial Diet, town history and journal articles. Traditional perception of Yoshino has highlighted Mt.Yoshino, with its well-known scenic beauty of cherry blossoms, associations with national history and its importance to Shugen-do. During the designation process, Yoshino was recognized as a much wider area and new values, such as the beauty of cedar forests,well-managed by the traditional forestry, were discovered. As a result, new landscape recognitions emerged. However, the forest areas were extensively reduced as the government responded to requests from the forestry sector. Finally, only the national history of Mt.Yoshino was emphasized in the designation, which justified unusual zoning separatingMt.Yoshino from major part of the national park, thus excluding other various social and cultural values of Yoshino.
Recently, the greenery at Tama Zensho-en has been discussed its background because it has been created by residents living in a Hansen’s Disease sanatorium under the isolated area. The subject of this study is a changing of greenery in Tama Zensho-en: Specifically, the changeing process of greenery, its background, memory of greenery and social image of each group. The results are as follows: when the Hansen’s Disease sanatorium was planned around Kanto region, coppice woodland as rural resources were selected as an appropriate location. During the isolation period around the opening phase in the 1910’s, the sanatorium was clearly separated from outside. Residential districts were isolated by using Earthwork fortification and planting hedges along the border of each districts, they prevented residents from escaping. In the 1960’s, when the isolation policy was mitigated, high hedges which enclosed the sanatorium were trimmed to 1.3 meters with an intention to open up the place to the local community. However, this action caused tree planting again because residents lost multiple functions of green, especially to external environments. Today while Tama Zensho-en’s forest is highlighted as a symbol of isolation and nostalgia, we clarified that its greenery had been developed with social relationships.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the status of resident activity in maintaining urban parks and the effectiveness of the incentives provided by the government to promote such resident activity, and to consider the way of these incentives in the future. In this study, we first carried out a questionnaire-based survey on 860 local governments. The contents of the questionnaire were the status of resident activity in maintaining urban parks, the incentives provided by the government to promote resident activity, activities and their contents and the effectiveness of these incentives. Then, we analyzed the data obtained as a result of the survey. The results are as follows: 1) We found that the incentives provided by the government to promote the resident activity and the effectiveness of these incentives are various and related. 2) We clarified the possibility and problems that the governments strategically provide incentives to promote the resident activity with the aim of forming a community based on mutual assistance.
Many amateur Japanese gardeners use small semi-public spaces to grow their favorite plants. These activities may be a kind of community development, but they do not always intend to contribute to such development. On the other hand, amateur gardeners have their own experiences and desires. What are the kinds of experiences contributing to building public space? Starting from this research question, the author conducts a case study on a semi-organized group at Shiba Municipal Park. From 2004, this group has been looking after and growing plants every Saturday morning as a volunteer activity, and then they keep a small flower garden to contribute to the local landscape of central Tokyo. The result of category relations shows the experiences as follows: the experiences of the members show a trend to deepen as they converge their way and knowledge of gardening. Then the experiences divide into two trends of deepening, one is the desire for the park to be appreciated and the other is a desire to look after and develop the park. The former experiences are easy to support and evaluate by local government, while the latter are important for the continuation of the group but difficult to support.
Based on previous research of the evaluation method of cultural ecosystem service (CES), this study examined a trial evaluation method grasping the multi-functionality of CES provided by urban parks located in the suburb of Tokyo metropolis. This method was focusing the relative importance of the multi-functionality by selecting the most valuable and the second valuable functions with the mail-back questionnaire survey. Result showed the importance of some function affected by the socio-demographic attributes of users and their attitude of CES. The similarities and differences of mutual relationships among functions were observed in these parks. Also, these relationships were affected by the socio-demographic attributes of users and their attitude of CES. There supposed to be a need to establish an indicator characterizing the supply function of CES of the park as well as to a multi-tiered evaluation method according to the proximity to the park. In order to understand the dynamics of changes among factors affecting CES evaluation, an evaluation method that include the relationship between supplier and receiver of CES should be developed.
In recent years, it is important to grasp the economic value evaluation of the waterfront space created by public works. This study aimed to understand the value consciousness and economic value evaluation of waterfront space creat ed, and to clarify the relevance of the value consciousness and the economic value evaluation. The subject of this study is the waterfront space of Horikawa River that has been created by the waterfront environmental improvement project of Kyoto city. A questionnaire survey was conducted for neighboring residents of Horikawa River and using the CVM to grasp the economic value evaluation of Horikawa River. From the survey results, the value consciousness of the subject was conducted the quantification theory class Ⅲ and cluster analysis and classified from the evaluation trend into two groups. As a result, two groups trend to evaluate the value consciousness of landscape elements and space utilization. Also a result of the factor ana lysis, four value consciousness, history and culture, community space of the region, trees, river flow has been found to be associated with the economic value evaluation, especially community space of the region suggested strong correlation coefficient.
The stone roof is a rare architectural design found in Tsushima. Here, these stone roofs are used for the storehouse. While it has been reported that the number of stone roof storehouses are currently decreasing, not all have been investigated for about 10 years. We conducted a survey on the distribution of stone roof storehouses since 2014 and clarified the latest situation on their state of survival. Due to this distribution survey, the survival of 43 stone roofs was confirmed. Roof shapes in the form of 13 gable roofs and 30 entrance hall roofs were noted. In addition, by comparing the number of buildings with stone roof storehouses in each village for the last 10 years with data from past research, it was observed that the rate of decrease varied from village to village.
Today, several local governments in Japan are making attempts to create their own local systems for the conservation and utilization of culture and nature. This study defines these systems as “Systems for Local Heritage” and aims to describe the characteristics and appraise the results of these systems. The Systems for Local Heritage of eight different regions are examined, and common features and differences are identified. The results show that one identified common feature is the importance ascribed to the opinions of the local communities. Furthermore, a difference was detected in the support of conservation and utilization of culture and nature, depending on the department in charge. The Systems for Local Heritage in five regions were found to be based on landscape planning. Three of these regions were selected as case studies of the effects of these systems. The results show that three Systems for Local Heritages had implemented the discovery of local heritage. However, the implementation of conservation and utilization was deemed not sufficient. Among the three case studies, Tono city is noticeable for its high level of involvement of the local residents. System management supporting the continuous involvement of local residents are deemed as beneficial for local heritage.
In this study, we conducted outdoor observation around the valley of Jinnouj i in Yawata City, Kyoto Prefecture. The purpose of this research was to clarify the occurrence of low temperature mountain breeze and its characteristics. Observations were carried out for 13 days out of sunny days from August to September 2015. As a result, it was revealed that mountain bree ze was confirmed in all observations for 13 days, and it was revealed that mountain breeze continues to occur day and night. It was a peculiar case that a remarkable mountain breeze occurs during the day. The mountain breeze brought about a remarkable temperature decrease of around 7.0 ℃ around the valley of Jinnouji during the summer day and it was confirmed that a continuous wind of 1.5 m wind speed was blowing. Chilling effect of this wind was high compared with general mountain breeze and valley breeze phenomenon. It turned out that this is a phenomenon that can be effectively ut ilized as a cool spot in urban areas.
A purpose of this study is to clarify the formative process of the frame of the land use to the present from establishment. This study focuses on Iwase Farm, Fukushima Prefecture that has value as historic agricultural and livestock industrial facilities. I confirm a ranch site, facilities, a main road, and tree position in chronological order and clarify the formative process of the land use frame. Iwase Farm is divided into two categories: production base of south site around grassland and the cowshed and business base of north site around the office. As a result of study, I understood that the land use frame of the Iwase Farm was formed by tree group planted in the border of the ranch site and road of north-south directions toward the third Goryochi (imperial estate) and main road of east-west directions which are connected to the Ou-highway.
The lives and livelihoods of local people strongly influence cultural landscapes; hence, the local governments, together with the local people, must organize and establish conservation systems for these landscapes. However, if existing maintenance activities are not actively followed before the designation of important cultural landscapes, promoting the conservation and utilization of these landscapes after the designation may be difficult. This study aims to clarify the role of local governments in establishing effective conservation systems that involve community organizations after the designation. We analyzed the characteristics of conservation systems described in the preservation plans of important cultural landscapes. Furthermore, we conducted a questionnaire to help municipalities understand the pertinent activities necessary for maintaining cultural landscapes in the designated areas. Consequently, we determined that the actual conservation systems required after the designation do not necessarily match those described in the preservation plans. New action groups were established to assist in various projects begun after the designation. Furthermore, municipalities with few precedents of landscape conservation and community development find it difficult to promote conservation activities and establish community-based conservation systems.
The purpose of this research is to understand the placement of scenic views of Mt. Tsukuba, along with specific preservation policies, in the plans and systems of the local governments that lie within the visual range of Mt. Tsukuba, and therefore to consider issues related to the preservation of such scenic views. It has become clear that Mt. Tsukuba is mentioned in the landscape plans and city master plans of the municipalities of an extensive part of the Kanto region. These include Saitama Prefecture, Chiba Prefecture, the city of Tokyo, and other areas. While the statements related to Mt. Tsukuba are of a diverse nature, many of them concern the placement of scenic views and also indicate specific viewpoints. However, in examining specific regulations, it becomes clear that neighboring regional governments have no district-wide policy, and individual regulations are not compliant with the larger plan - the District-wide Plan for the Formation of Scenic Views of Mt. Tsukuba. It is possible for the local governments currently designating Mt. Tsukuba as a scenic view to cooperate in establishing a district-wide program. Such a program would apply beyond a single vicinity and cross municipal areas.
This paper aims to compare and discuss the differences and similarities between the mansion and the diplomatic mission, which was built during 1912 to 1949 in Nanjing. Based on the investigation, 22 mansions and 17 diplomatic missions are selected as study objects. First will be the analysis of the site scale, the plan composition, the entrance and the active line of each site. Next will be a classify of the exterior composition of the mansion and the diplomatic mission through the decision tree. And the last part will be the comparison of the characteristics. Similarity of the scale, plan composition, the entrance and the active line can be found between mansions and diplomatic missions. And differences can be found that, missions have smaller scale with more complexes active line and entrance, and simpler plan composition. Although, diplomatic missions have lager scale, with simpler active line and outstanding entrance. And the exterior space in diplomatic missions surrounds main building with more connections than missions’. Because there were more functions, such as foreign diplomacy, government affairs, residence and sociality, were required from diplomatic missions.
Mihono-Matsubara, which is located in Shizuoka Prefecture and faces Suruga Bay, was registered as a component of the World Cultural Heritage Site in 2013, because it has been closely related to Mount Fuji, sacred place and source of artistic inspiration. However, the change of the relationships between Mihono-Matsubara and Mount Fuji has not been made clear. The purpose of this study is: 1) to clarify the change of relationship between Mount Fuji and Mihono-Matsubara through painting and printing analysis; 2) to capture the visitor’s landscape recognition in modern times through questionnaire survey; 3) to consider the future direction of conservation and management of the cultural landscape at Mihono-Matsubara area. As a result, the whole period from Muromachi era to modern times can be divided into four parts (faith period, composition period, human works period, theme period). In addition to this, it was suggested that the recognition of landscape of Mount Fuji and Mihono-Matsubara changed from what has the religious meaning to what placed more weight on the visual landscape. It is considered that the cultural landscape at Miho area should be managed based on such a change.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the landscape perception of children who live in Satoyama area which locate in city suburb, where there are a few landscape perception researches have done. The research resource is recommended landscape and recommended reason of local school students, which was selected through "Kisawa-Hakkei selecting project" in Kisawa district, Hiratsuka city. We extract viewed elements and viewing spots from recommended landscape, and landscape perception types from recommend reasons. As a result, three trends were found. (1)The landscape of Satoyama and farmland were almost not selected, even though the Satoyama can be seen from many spots and there are a lot of farmlands in Kisawa district.(2)The children select landscape as seen from the place which is relevant to their living environment.(3)There are not only a landscape perception type that epithet the viewing spots like "beautiful", but also various perception types, for example, the type that express their own mentality like "become cheerful (by seeing the recommend landscape)".
This study focuses on alun-alun, which is a traditional open space located in the center of the cities in Java island, Indonesia. In this study, the alun-alun image that people recognize was investigated through a Landscape Image Sketching Technique (LIST) complemented by keywords sampling and text analysis. By this method, it identified the relationship between the space configuration and alun-alun image. The subject of the study were 202 students of Gadja Mada University of Yogyakarta city. This study revealed the following facts, that students were able to categorize five types of space configuration by their image sketch; 1) Two types of Ficus Benjamina tree, 2) Empty space, 3) Facilities, 4) One type of Ficus Benjamina tree, and 5) Others. In all type, people associated the space with play area, the bazaar, and as a gathering spot. And in 1) it explained that alun-alun has relationship with image of kingdom as one of sightseeing place. However, people also have some negative emotion like hot, dry, and dust. And in 3) it identified that people thought the space is beautiful and comfortable place. As a result, there is a close relationship between space configuration and people recognition with its characteristics.
In order to discuss the importance of visual landscape, especially visual connection between inhabitants and their surrounding natural and social environments in everyday lives, visibilities to sea from traditional settlements in coastal zone were surveyed. As a case study along San-riku coastal area, where is historically frequent-damaged area by tsunami in north-east Japan, visibility frequencies to sea from settlements (n=584) were examined exhaustively. Cumulative viewshed analysis on DEM by GIS (ArcMap) was used for the calculation of visibility frequencies. The result shows a tendency that approximately 30 % or more of entire settlements dispersed along the coastal area, regardless of fishery or non-fishery (mostly agricultural) settlement, have relatively higher frequencies of visibility to sea than their surrounding land. It is believed that people's experiences in everyday life is one of the basic reasons for their continued occupation, and the idea of visual connection using the method of visibility frequency analysis is expected to be an important contribution for enhancing the ways of evaluation of cultural landscapes.
A pilgrimage route is the spatial route that a pilgrim travels, from the point of departure to the sacred destination. The Iseji pilgrimage route in Kumano can be described as a typical one. It has connected Ise and Kumano for over a thousand years, until the middle of the 19th century, and parts of this route are inscribed on the World Heritage list. This study aims to identify and describe the characteristics of the space structure of the Iseji pilgrimage route in Kumano, using literature analysis, geographical research and archaeological surveys as research methods. The results of these analysis show that there were temples and sights established along the pilgrimage route which supported pilgrims on their travel. Temples related to the sacred destinations, placed at appropriate distances, indicated the right way to the destination, and served as a verification for the travellers’ position as pilgrims. Sights were arranged around the flat section of the route where the walk easily got boring for the pilgrims. The sights were not directly related to the sacred destinations, but they all had specific meanings with basis in the local environment, such as flourishing town, old famous travellers, and ghost stories about demons. In addition to that, they were related to a world separate from that of daily life, in other words, they constituted a landscape of meaning, which enabled the pilgrims to assess the progress of their pilgrimage journey.
It is important to analyze streetscape because the street becomes the place where the pedestrian experience townscape. In this study, we investigated how to see landscape resources on typical streets by focusing on sequential landscape in the old castle town in Sanda City, Hyogo. We took pictures of the streetscape every 15m, and grasped having landscape resources or not in the photograph. Based on this result, we extracted typical scene landscapes on the streets, and specified 13 important areas where landscape resources are seen characteristically by analysis of sequentiality of scene landscape and road shape. In important areas, road shape such as a curve or a slope affected how to see landscape resources, and created characteristic sequential landscape. It is suggested that extracting of important areas enables showing the place where should be worked on landscape planning as priority, and the basis of guidelines for landscape planning of old castle town.
This study aims to clarify the spatial composition and elements of traditional Korean Byeol-Seo Gardens through the field survey and the GIS analysis of topographical characteristics. The field research and survey were carried out on August and November in 2014 and November in 2015 at 9 gardens in Gwangju, Damyang region：MyunAngJeong, SongGangJeong, YeongGyeJeong, MoonIlJeong, KwanSooJeong, SikYoungJeong, HwanBuckDang, ChiGaJeong and MyuongOkHeon. Through creating the original contour maps by combining the field survey results with GIS data，the following aspects are consequently observed on the 9 gardens. (1) Byeol-Seo is considered to have spatial composition to be aware of the view from the Pavilion. (2) Topographical characteristics make spatial composition in Byeol-Seo and fall into two major categories. While prior researches focused on the meaning and philosophy of the gardens, this study, involving the quantitative analysis, elucidates the style of the spatial composition. This kind of analysis could be the basis of recognizing the morphological characteristics and the meaning of the spatial design of the traditional garden.
This study aims to examine the characteristics of the representational use of the “Namako-wall” and its expansion in Shimoda City, Shizuoka. We also attempted to clarify how, under the influence of tourism development, this particular design became an iconic object representing regional images. Through an on-site survey, we collected the representational use of the Namako-wall in architectural façades and street furniture, and clarified the difference between tourism representations and original designs. The results were as follows. 1) Sorting time-series changes, from the development of the townscape to recognition of their value as historical resources, it was clarified that Namako-wall began to be used as a design representing regionality from the 1980’s. 2) Through a field survey of the area where buildings with the Namako-wall design are located, the distribution of building close to historical resources was shown. It also confirmed its spread to areas that were subsequently developed through urbanization. 3)As designs symbolizing regional influences, there are at least two different types of use. The first type designs objects based on the authentic pattern. The second type extracts only the characteristic patterns of the Namako-wall and uses it as a design for architectural façades, pavements and so on.
This study was intended to clarify the change of charm and the impression of the season in river landscape and green open space. This study area was Kamo River by autumn from spring in Kyoto. There was direct interview question investigation from visitors on the both sides of the two sections. This investigation was the impression evaluation experiment using the SD method to investigate the impression of the river landscape scene every seasons. There analyzed factor analysis and profile analysis. Thera performed an analysis of variance between seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to check whether the impression evaluation in two sections included significant difference. The answer that there was the most accounted for 19.5% of the whole by a landscape scene. The people more than 90% of the respondent answered that the making of space feeling the four seasons was important. From the result of the SD method, it was easy to feel the change of the tree visually in autumn with spring, and it was thought that a natural element influenced an impression. In addition, an overall element including the urb an river and the townscape influenced an impression in the summer because the colors of the tree were monotonous.
Image sequence of the running direction along marathon course of 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games by GoPro, and GPS positioning by iPad was also performed due to distance from start point and altitude were acquired. Moreover, analysis of sequential landscape was performed by multiple theories of image processing in this paper. As a result, complexity of the landscape for certain object and overall could be expressed by using 2 kinds of fractal analysis respectively. Particularly, the difference of landscape for each position could be understood quantitatively. Therefore, quantitative analysis for sequential landscape was realized. On the other hand, position for each scene of the landscape could be obtained by GPS. These proposal methods could acquire quantitative data for landscape, however subjective information by the runners are also required for landscape planning. Such data or information will be combined to be analyzed, consequently it can be seen that the supply of the objective and reliable information for the landscape by runners will be realized.
Local residents in Japan have been involved in park maintenance for a long time. Furthermore, their activities are considered effective not just in beautification of the environment but also in enhancing crime prevention. Therefor enhancing evaluation of open-space maintenance activities as an integral element of community safety design. Most evaluation studies on the effect of these activities focus on a system or community or crime prevention, whereas studies that evaluate of its effects on combine these view point as comprehensive community safety design are rare. The purpose of this research is to understand the current state of the awareness of park management activities by local residents and to clarify how the acknowledgement of those activities contributes to community building and crime prevention. The data was gathered from resident questionnaires, and a multiple-regression analysis was performed with awareness of the activities as the explanatory variable and the effect of the activities as the response variable. As a result, it became clear that a weak relationship exists between communication within the area and awareness of activities such as cleaning the park and growing flowers. However, there was no resulting improvement in safety against crimes. In addition, only among women was the acknowledgement of growing flowers seen to improve the sense of public safety, security, and attachment to the area.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the current state of child care support services utilizing the urban parks across our country, and to clarify the relationship between the types of service factoring data about the provided service ("Characteristics of parks", "Implementing entity of projects", "Effects of providing service"). In this study, first, we carried out a questionnaire survey to 1,035 local governments (47 Prefectures, 790 cities, 23 wards of Tokyo, and 175 administrative divisions of major cities). Then we conducted the aggregate and analysis of the data obtained as results of the questionnaire survey. Results are as follows: 1) 18% of local governments provide child care support services in urban parks. Furthermore 30% of local governments hope to provide child care support services in urban parks in the future. 2) Various services are provided in urban parks. For example, "Adventure playgrounds", "Services promoting the exchanges between the families", "Various experience events", "Childcare services" are cited. 3) Each service has different factoring data about the provided service.
This research identifies the relationship between characteristics of project and governing structure for hot spring power generation in hot spring areas. The main findings are as follows. (1) Governing structure for hot spring power generation in hot spring areas has big differences in both the number of stakeholders and their role involving management of hot spring power generation. (2) Local resident’s acceptance level for hot spring power generation in the hot spring areas where local residents have the central role of managing hot spring power generation is higher than that in the hot spring areas where nonlocal persons have the central role of this. (3) Hot spring areas implementing hot spring power generation differ in the objective and the influence according to the characteristics of hot spring areas. Based on these findings, we propose a list of considerations in order to review the establishment and management of project for hot spring power generation.
In Japan, most of remaining peri-urban forests have a history of being maintained as satoyama, and currently citizen volunteers are actively restoring maintenance. However, their maintenance tends to be focused on environmental conservation (e.g. biodiversity), and therefore has not be evaluated from biomass point of view, although they have been producing certain amount. This study aims to identify the characteristic of tree felling and biomass production of citizen satoyama maintenance in peri-urban areas, taking Kashiwa city, a suburban community of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region, as a case study. We conducted ‘stump survey’ and identified location and diameter of the over 1,137 tree stumps in 9 sites of citizen-maintained satoyama. By applying the acquired data to existing regression formulas, biomasss of elled trees were estimated. The results show that the average biomass production of citizen maintenance is 2.21 dt/ha・yr, however, trees in isolated satoyama patches may not be regenerating as small sized trees were felled for conserving canopies. We concluded that constructing holistic biomass collection system and felling certain number of large sized trees were indispensable both for utilizing and sustaining biomass in peri-urban satoyama.
Recently, requests for citizens to participate in green space conservation activities have been increasing in Japan. However, the amount of management work done by citizens is not always constant because the number of participants is small sometimes. Therefore, it is important to develop a strategy regarding green space conservation from the viewpoint of labor. Using willingness to work (WTW) is defined as “the number of desired participation days per year”, we determined the relation between the willingness of residents to participate in green space conservation activities and the site characteristics of green spaces in the suburbs. The entire Tsurugashima City in Saitama Prefecture was taken as the survey area, and 10 green spaces including parks, forests and streams were evaluated. We conducted a mail survey on the residents of Tsurugashima City; 721 respondents participated in the survey (valid response rate 18%). From the results of this study, we found a significant difference in WTW between residents that lived within l,000 m of each green spaces and the others. However, the situation was just applicable to only green spaces that were over 1 ha.
Responding to the growing interest in agriculture by urban residents, business enterprises in Japan are starting to support operations of ‘experience gardens’, gardens run by farm households where participants can learn how to grow vegetables. Although practical supports by business enterprises may provide chances for more farm households to run experience gardens, levels of enterprises’ involvement may vary according to each garden’s physical and social characteristics. This study aims to identify the extent of enterprises’ involvements in the 62 experience gardens and classify the gardens by their physical and social characteristics. The study identifies 3 types of the operations as A) operating mainly by enterprise for assistance of participant’s activities (48 gardens), B) operating mainly by enterprise and acting over participant’s activities (4 gardens), and C) operating mainly by a farmer and enterprise supports them (10 gardens). The type C was identified as a new type which has not been reported and may contribute to fostering motivated farmers who intends to operate experience garden themselves basically.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how the sites of public elementary and junior high schools are used. Thr ough this study, the authors revealed three main points. First, this study comprises of 52 sites in Iwate and Miyagi Prefecture. S chools located at the sites were abolished or moved inland. Second, location of sites influenced the land uses. For example, when the site is located in the area designated as disaster hazard areas after it was affected by the Tsunami, there will be plans to change land use to a public facility, public restoration housing, or residential housing. Lastly, there are cases that the projects for restoration influence the land use of sites. For example, a site is planned as a public community center because there will b e a new residential area near the site. In this case, it can also be said that the local government took into account sentiments of residents because schools were very important for local communities and local residents. However, there are some problems such as maintenance costs. In summary, it is necessary to consider the situations of topology or projects for restoratio n near sites.
House consolidation is the progressive structural improvement of a house. The aim of this paper is to identify, describe and simulate the process of house consolidation. Houses located in informally developed blocks in Lima metropolitan area, are hypothesized to upgrade its state according to a local mechanism of perceived influence. A specifically designed Cellular Automata model based on actual data at the micro-scale of the block permits to track state transition process. An updating algorithm is devised to reproduce house consolidation process under experimental conditions where the access to this dynamic system is limited to only the construction state variable. A study area composed by three subdivided agricultural parcels has been used to characterize state transition process. Simulation allows to understand how the general model fits to different combinations of block size, composition and configurations observed in the empirical data. Limitations of this approach are rooted on the use of the single variable of state to replicate the whole spatial configuration and temporal trajectories. However, this study permits us to describe this complex system at the scale of the house, and to have access to the necessary information to replicate consolidation process, presenting a novel approach for studying the dynamics of informal urbanization from the bottom-up.
In this study, which focused on rivers in Osaka’s city center, we sought to find effective ways to improve urban rivers in future projects by evaluating current river accessibility and making clear changes in past river improvement project methods. We found that the accessibility rate for rivers in the center of Osaka city still remains at approximately 40 percent. Approximately 60 percent of river promenades (which provide river access) were constructed as part of area-wide improvement projects before 1996, such as large-scale park development and land maintenance. This shows the importance of ensuring access to the river in urban infrastructure improvement projects. We also discovered that since 1997 river access has been secured in river improvement projects, and that such projects have become diverse. Especially since 2011, partially thanks to projects conducted independently by Osaka Prefecture, the number of connected promenades with easy access to rivers has been increasing.
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