The effect of Ti addition on the oxidation resistance of high-purity 19%Cr ferritic stainless steels has been investigated during isothermal heat treatment at temperatures between 1073 K and 1273 K in air. The microstructures of scale and the scale/metal interface were investigated in detail by means of SEM-EBSD and FE-TEM together with μ-EDS.
The Ti addition increases the oxidation mass gains but simultaneously improves the critical temperature of the oxidation resistance. The formed scale is mainly Cr2O3 regardless of the addition of Ti but Ti addition increases the thickness of Cr2O3. Considerable reduction in the grain size of Cr2O3 by Ti addition was recognized, which was inferred to increase the oxidation mass gain due to the easy diffusion through the grain boundary. Furthermore, Ti is oxidized beneath the scale/metal interface as internal complex oxides, such as Al2TiO5 and Al2Ti7O15 because of the small amount of aluminum in the steels used. In a somewhat deeper region from the interface, θ-Al2O3 forms where Ti cannot be oxidized. The oxygen getter effect by Ti atoms is postulated to be responsible for improving the oxidation resistance.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of Nb content of Ti-xNb-7Al alloys (x=20-35 mass%, abbreviated as xNbA) on β (bcc)→α″ (orthorhombic) transformation with tempering through microstructure, isothermal age-hardening, and shape change of a U-shaped specimen with heating. Full α″-martensite structure was obtained on the quenched 20 NbA. With increasing of Nb content, residual β-phase increased, and single β-phase was obtained in the alloys of more than 25 NbA. From the result, the MS temperature commonly decreases with increasing of Nb content. The hardness of 20 NbA and 23 NbA rapidly increased in a few seconds by isothermal aging at 450°C, and the hardness of the alloys of more than 25 NbA abruptly increased after an incubation period for 30-60 s. No compositional distribution between α″ and matrix in the aged 23 NbA was found by STEM-EDS analysis, but the obvious distribution of Nb was detected in 35 NbA. U-shaped specimen of 20 NbA exhibited no shape change by heating. On the other hand, the specimen of 23 NbA composed of β+α″ phases showed the shape recovery (SR) first due to work induced α″→β inverse transformation, then deformed toward the bending direction (SA: shape advance) due to β→α″ transformation. The specimens of more than 28 NbA composed of single β-phase exhibited only SA without SR. The starting temperature of SA (MSA: β→α″) with heating increases with increasing of Nb content. Merging MS (upper) and MSA (lower), it is proposed that the whole MS of xNbA alloy forms a bow shape curve. It is suggested that the low Nb alloys inside the MS curve transform immediately without atom diffusion by tempering at 450°C, but the higher Nb alloys outside the curve need an incubation period to distribute Nb concentration with atom diffusion, and martensitic α″ transformation will abruptly occur in the local domains less than 25 NbA which is the inside of the curve.
In this study, thermal fatigue tests at maximum temperature 1073 K were performed using 13%Cr-Nb-Si and 18%Cr-Nb-Mo steels as representative heat-resistant ferritic stainless steels for automotive exhaust systems. The changes in the microstructure, the crystal orientation and the hysteresis loop during thermal fatigue in the temperature range from 473 K to 1073 K were investigated. As a result of comparing thermal fatigue life under these conditions, 18%Cr-Nb-Mo steel with high temperature strength was found to have a longer thermal fatigue life than 13%Cr-Nb-Si steel. During the thermal fatigue process, the material was softened by reducing of the amount of solute Nb, and the coarsening of Nb precipitation. By this softening, the form of the hysteresis loops changed with the increase in cycles. By considering the softening of the material, the change in the hysteresis loops could be predicted to some extent. Furthermore, by EBSD analysis, it was recognized that the dynamic recovery and recrystallization accompanied by the uniaxial and fine grain formation occurred during the thermal fatigue process. From the viewpoint of change of the microstructure, the thermal fatigue damage was quantified by the ratio of the low-angle grain boundary, and the change of this index with the progress of the cycle in 18%Cr-Nb-Mo steel had a smaller than 13%Cr-Nb-Si steel. It was thought that this point was caused by the retardation of recrystallization by solute Mo.
The dislocation structures in polycrystalline Fe-1 mass% Si after cyclic deformation were observed using high voltage electron microscopy in order to investigate the formation mechanism of the dislocation structures. Vein, wall, and cell structures were found in a deformed specimen. Detailed orientation and structure of the walls were analyzed. Burgers vectors of dislocations in the walls were a/2 and a/2. A set of walls was arranged parallel to the (110) plane and it was found to be a part of labyrinth structure consisting of the (110) and (001) walls. It is suggested that the formation mechanism of the labyrinth structure in bcc metal is reasonably understood by extending the mechanisms in fcc metals.
The interface-precipitation has been observed as row carbide arrange since 1960’s. Whereas the interface-precipitated carbides in steels were NbC, TiC, VC and Cr23C6 in the early stage, composite TiC containing Mo and W has been also become to observe recently. Several kinds of the mechanism of the interface-precipitation have been suggested and ledge mechanism and bowing mechanism which combined interface barging and carbide precipitation are widely accepted since the mechanisms successfully explained a large amount of the experimental results. Fine interface-precipitates in low carbon steel realize high strength steel sheets, plates, bars and rods which are non-quenched and tempered. Especially, in sheet products, in which fine carbides can be easily generated, ferritic steel of 1180 MPa in tensile strength is successfully obtained by dispersing fine carbides with the diameter of several nano-meters.
The viscosities of the lead-free solders are important to simulate the process of the manufacturing process. In this article, current status of the viscosity measurements for the lead-free solders are reviewed. In addition, we introduced the current work of the viscosity measurements for the lead-free solders by using the rotational viscometer with concentric cylinder spindle geometry.
Most of the refineries for platinum group metals (PGMs) in Japan have adopted solvent extraction methods for mutual separation of PGMs. Few effective extractants for industrial use have been found although some industrial processes were established in 1970's. Recently, some compounds have been reported as candidates for practical PGM extractants in addition to new concepts for PGM extraction mechanisms. In this review article, we present well-known PGM recovery processes based on solvent extraction, industrial extractants and their properties, and conventional extraction mechanism for PGMs. Additionally, we discuss recent interesting extraction systems (amide-type compounds and ionic liquid) and then introduce new extraction concepts based on the specific interactions at the outer-sphere of a metal complex in the organic phase.
Recycling of precious metals from scraps generated from manufacturing process have been widely done. The recycling process calls for maintenance of confidentiality of the scrap, use of isolated lots for the recycling operation, high recovery rates, short operation time and low treatment costs. In recent years, the recycling process has been facing three additional problems. The first is the reduction in the precious metal content in the scraps because of their substitution by other non-ferrous metals. The second is the contamination of metals that are never contained in natural ores. They have been used for upgrading the product performance, but those contaminations make it difficult to extract and purify precious metals. The third is the enforcement of stringent environmental regulations in Japan, which prohibits the continuous use of certain chemicals such as nitric acid. This paper describes the work carried out by a precious metals recycling company to solve the aforementioned problems.
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are suitable materials for weight reduction in vehicles because of their low densities and high specific strengths. However, rolled Mg alloy sheets generally exhibit a poor formability at room temperature and thus their applications are restricted. This poor formability is originated from basal slip dominated deformation as well as strong basal texture. It is known that the formability can be improved by suppression of basal texture formation. Thus, large efforts have been devoted to texture control for the purpose of enhancing the room temperature formability. In this paper, recent researches for texture control of rolled Mg alloy sheets are reviewed.0