In the event of a marine accident, abandon ship may be ordered as a last resort and all the personnel may be evacuated from the ship using lifeboats. In such cases, the highest priority is given to ensure that they are able to evacuate safely. A lifeboat should be designed to sustain lives of the personnel in destress. However, an inquiry survey reported crew onboard a totally enclosed lifeboat with a hatch closed due to rough sea condition had experienced discomfort and shortness of breath only for almost one hour boarding. Such discomfort and shortness of breath might have adverse effects on the safe evacuation, escape and rescue operations. Appropriate measures should be taken in order to avoid such discomfort and authors consider that active ventilation is necessary for improving microclimate inside a totally enclosed lifeboat with the hatch closed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of active ventilation for improving microclimate inside a totally enclosed lifeboat with a hatch closed, examining feasibility of active ventilation system.
Even now that various navigation instruments have been developed, collision accidents between fishing vessels and general power-driven vessels at sea occurs repeatedly. According to the Transportation Safety Committee “Fune to umi,” (Marine Accident Inquiry Safety Investigation Association) at the end of July 2016, there were 491 cases of ship accidents in Japan in 2016. Fishing vessels accounted for 163 of these cases, approximately 33% of the total accidents. This study, we have carried out a questionnaire addressing three points: (1) Fishing vessels' awareness of other vessels, (2) Determining if fishing vessels were power-driven when they were not engaged in fishing, (3) The distance fishing vessels crews keep to avoid other vessels. The results were as follows: (1) The difference in awareness between light time and dark time, a state in which look out conditions are poor (over half), (2) Approximately 20% of respondents recognized “fishing vessels” = (equal) “vessel engaged in fishing,” (3) Although it depends on the age of the fishermen and how experienced they are, approaching another ship up to 500 m, they think about avoidance actions, and it was found that there was a high possibility of some action to be performed. Previous studies mentioned that there is a difference in the timing of "Risk of collision" between general power-driven vessels and fishing vessels, and in the Act on Preventing Collisions at Sea (Kaijyoshototsuyobouho), because there are no rules determining aversion using vessel size. It is clear that one cause of collisions is due to the time difference when there is a possibility of "Risk of collision." In the future, it is necessary to verify the law by considering the size of the vessel further.
This article intends to investigate the reason for the difference between the implementation of an alert system for typhoons on land and in ports. Local governments often have difficulty in assessing the risk of natural disasters on land, and therefore are hesitant to recommend residents on evacuation. In ports, however, a network of professionals shares seamanship, which is described as a common set of maritime knowledge, skills, and mentality that is unique to Japanese seamen. Seamanship contributes to seamless emergency management during natural disasters, despite the potential conflicts of interest among organizations. Through the combination of seamanship, as it pertains to navigation literature, with policy networks, which are based on public administration theory, it is revealed that seamanship plays a pivotal role in the building and maintaining of networks among actors in port. The lack of such a united network on land to make decisions pertaining to natural disaster response is the missing factor. Seamanship provides a common culture that lays the foundation for seamless decision-making and the implementation of the maritime safety policy in ports, and may have the potential to link navigation and social science in order to benefit the field of emergency management in Japan.