The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) has a low tolerance to cold; nevertheless, it migrates to Japan from warmer surroundings every year. To clarify the genetic diversity among divergent areas in Asia, phylogenetic relationships were examined by cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequencing and genome profiling of extracted DNA from S. litura isolated from four Asian countries and eight domestic areas in Japan. Our results clearly showed genomic differences among individuals isolated from Southeast Asia, especially Thailand and Indonesia, compared with those from the domestic areas in Japan, suggesting that this species has formed indigenous populations among these areas. Moreover, evidence indicates that S. litura does not migrate to Japan directly from areas in Southeast Asia because many samples collected throughout Japan were the same strain, which indicated that the S. litura moths migrated from the Ogasawara islands. The individuals collected from China, Taiwan, and Okinawa shared the same cluster. These results certainly indicate that the adult moths of S. litura indigenous to Southern China and Taiwan migrate to Japan via Okinawa.
Small-scale soil scarification under canopies has been proposed to remove regeneration inhibitor plants that often dominate the understory in natural forests after selection logging. We studied the impacts of the small-scale soil scarification on carabid beetle assemblages in conifer–hardwood mixed forests in northern Japan. We sampled carabid beetles using pitfall traps in scarified sites and adjacent unscarified sites two and four years after scarification. Forest species made up 98% of the total catch with only a few individuals of non-forest species occurring in scarified sites. Species richness of forest species did not differ significantly between scarified and unscarified sites, whereas species richness of non-forest species was higher in scarified sites than in unscarified sites. Carabid species composition differed between scarified and unscarified sites in each of the two study years. Dissimilarity measures between scarified and adjacent unscarified sites were smaller after four years than after two years, indicating that differences in species composition associated with scarification declined during the study period. Some forest species were more abundant in scarified sites, whereas other forest species were more abundant in unscarified sites. Our results suggest that small-scale scarification may have a limited impact on carabid beetle diversity.
We reared three parasitoid species from field-collected or sentinel eggs of Glaucias subpunctatus (Walker), which is a serious pest of fruit trees in Japan. Morphological observation revealed that they were Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), T. plautiae (Watanabe) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Anastatus japonicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). With regard to T. japonicus, the results of DNA analysis (a partial COI region of mtDNA) supported those of morphological identification. We did not analyze the DNA of T. plautiae and A. japonicus in this study due to a limited number of specimens. This is the first record of egg parasitoids that attack G. subpunctatus. The specimens examined in this study were kept in the collection of the Entomological Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Japan.
We tested the toxicity of 34 pesticides on the adult ladybird beetle Serangium japonicum Chapin, a predator of the tea spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai in tea fields by contact method using tea leaves. Organophosphate insecticides—acephate and methidathion and neonicotinoid insecticides—clothianidin, methomyl, bifenthrin, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, and cartap were moderately or seriously harmful. Silafluofen, chlorantraniliprole, and spinosad were slightly harmful. Methoxyfenozide, lufenuron, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, milbemectin, flubendiamide, ethiprole, chlorfenapyr, pyrifluquinazon, diafenthiuron, spiromesifen, tolfenpyrad, fenpyroximate·buprofezin mixer, etoxazole·pyrimidifen mixer, machine oil, and some fungicides were harmless.
An unknown noctuid larva was found feeding on cultivated shiitake mushrooms, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan during the summer of 2005. The larvae made cocoons, and three male and seven female adults emerged successfully on September 1, 2005. Mainly based on the male genitalia, the species was identified as Paragona multisignata, known from Akita, Miyagi, Niigata, and Kanagawa Prefectures in Japan, the Korean Peninsula, China, Mongolia and South East Russia. Here we report for the first time that P. multisignata is a pest that causes damage to the cultivated shiitake mushroom. We also show that this new pest is clearly distinguishable from other two noctuid pest species of shiitake mushrooms, Diomea cremata (Butler) and Anatatha lignea (Butler), by DNA barcoding.
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