The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the gender role division of labor (gender consciousness) on married women’s asset formation, and to determine whether there are differences in the employment status of married women (full-time employee, part-time employee, housewife) and what factors influence financial asset formation for each employment status.
A web-based survey of 1,000 married women (334 full-time employees, 333 part-time employees, and 333 housewives) between the ages of 30 and 55 revealed that common factors that significantly affected the amount of financial assets under the wife’s name for all types of employment were the wife’s contribution to marital asset formation and the amount of financial assets under the husband’s name. Common factors that significantly affected the amount of financial assets in the wife’s name for both types of employment were the wife’s contribution to marital asset formation and the amount of financial assets in the husband’s name. Particularly for part-time and full-time housewives, the level of marital asset contribution is underpinned by an awareness of the gender role division of labor, and the possibility of financial asset formation in the wife’s name is supported by the husband’s economic strength, as a result of which the asset formation of married women is still in jeopardy. In the future, along with financial education, it will be necessary to enhance education on gender issues in asset formation, women’s increased risk of poverty during divorce and old age, and the social security system.
As social care placement into foster care is being strongly encouraged by the central and local governments, the rate of foster care placements will continue to rise. As a result, it is expected that more children and young people who need planning to return to their biological homes will be placed into foster care. Therefore, building a relationship between foster carers and biological parents as joint caregivers for family reunification will be an important issue in future social care.
In this study, interviews were conducted with 10 carers who have experience working with the biological parents of their placed children in order to examine what kinds of perceptions the carers had through their experiences of being involved with the biological parents and how they changed.
The interviews found that the perceptions of the carers showed changes in their direct relationships with the biological parents. Although they initially had negative feelings toward the biological parents, as they recognized their efforts, they developed positive feelings and changed their minds so as to cooperate with the biological parents. Negative thoughts towards the biological parents that occurred during the relationship were modified by positive translations in the carers’ perceptions. In supporting the biological parents, many of the carers’ own skills were used, such as drawing a “boundary line” so that the carers would not be swayed by fluctuations in the biological parents. While dealing with the conflicts of foster carers caused by rejection by biological parents and with the risks entailed in supporting biological parents, a sense of their role to support the biological parents was maintained through factors for maintaining motivation, such as gaining the trust of biological parents, bonds among their team, and cooperation with peers.
This study suggests that when foster carers maintain their role of supporting biological parents, the likelihood of co-parenting between foster carers and parents increases.