In postwar Japan, the pro-education mother was the dominant style of parenting. Pro-education mothers are dedicated mothers with a great interest in the education and care of their children. However, it has been suggested that approaches to parenting have changed and there are anti-education mothers who are uninterested in their children’s education. Although previous scholars have pointed out that parents’ attitudes towards and styles of parenting are diverging, discussion about the different styles of parenting remains inadequate. The reason for this is that previous research has focused on mothers with high or low standards of living. Other cultural factors such as the popularization of higher education and rising employment rates have also influenced such studies. Among these social circumstances, gal-mamas have been attracting attention. “Gal” is a subculture of Japanese women characterized by light-colored hair, sun-tanned skin from a tanning salon, flashy makeup, and revealing fashion. Women belonging to this subculture who bear children are called gal-mamas. These women hold values that differ from those of the middle class. This study aims to clarify variations in the approaches of Japanese mothers in terms of parenting by studying the parenting styles of gal-mamas. Interviews with gal-mamas reveal that a mother’s norm of devotion to her children is widely shared. Gal-mamas do not promote educational achievement because they believe that survival requires abilities beyond academic success. Moreover, gal-mamas do not believe that the only means of raising a child’s social status is through educational advancement. This consciousness stems from their personal experiences. However, the parenting style of gal-mamas, which is individually tailored to each child, is frequently observed in highly educated mothers. The parenting style of gal-mamas, which respects each child’s wishes and individuality regardless of educational achievement, may be effective in raising children who are ready to face a diverse future.
Around the same time as the reforms of social structure and the introduction of a market economy in the planned economy were taking place in China, the one-child policy was implemented. This study focuses on Chinese males born under the economic reforms and one-child policy, who are generally known as the 80s generation. While exploring the current situation regarding adjustments to their work, housework, and childcare, this study also examines the gender attitude of these males, which was reconstructed under socialist modernization. The results show that 80s males have similar struggles to males living under modern capitalism. In particular, while fulfilling their economic role, both of these groups of males feel guilty of insufficient participation in housework and parenting. This study examines this from the perspective of “multiple dimensions of attitudes towards the gendered division of labor” and finds that “norms of balance” may exist in 80s males. These norms may be due to changes in the gender positions of men and women brought about by the one-child policy and changes in social resources resulting from social structural reforms.