The 2012 London Olympics were a great turning point in modern Olympic history, giving birth to the terms "Digital Olympics" and "Socialympics" due to the effective merging of the Internet with conventional broadcasting in the coverage of the event.
The present paper begins with an examination of how the Olympics were initially covered by the media, especially up to the first decade of the 20th century mainly inprint media. At the time, the word "media" was largely synonymous with "press", as the print media - which literally used press machines to create their product - had no real rivals as sources of information for the vast majority of people. The earliest popular views of the Olympics were thus determined by print media's cover-age. Next, the paper proceeds to a discussion of the ways in which the very first form of broadcasting, radio, was initially perceived in the West, especially France and Britain, as a feasible medium
for sports coverage. Particular attention is given here to Britain, where sports occupied a surprisingly prominent place in radio broadcasting even in the latter's earliest years, on par with coverage of such "serious" matters as the weather and the doings of the royal family.
The paper's main and final section is a consideration of a specific example of the close historical relationship between the Olympics and broadcasting, namely radio coverage of the 1924 Games. It focuses on the coverage in France, with the brilliant activity of Edmond Dehorter, the first radio sports reporter in that country.
In the course of the above discussions, this paper attempts to demonstrate how a detailed examination of the history of sports and media will reveal that the essence and significance of the close relationship between the Olympic Games and broadcasting can be found as far back as the earliest days of radio, a period which only not witnessed the dawn of Olympics broadcasting but also had significant parallels with the present, which is experiencing the "dawn" of yet another powerful and influential form of media - social media - and the latter's rapidly expanding role in information dissemination.
The purpose of this study is to examine the establishment process of the National Sports Festival
(NSF) by focusing on the reconstruction of the National Physical Training Association (NPTA)
from the World War H (W.W.I). This study revealed followings.
1) After the W.W. Isoon, the NPTA envisaged reconstructing of the Japanese sports situation
which integrated the sports organizations of student, adults and non-NPTA members into NPTA.
2) The NPTA held an important regional sports conference in around Japan in 1946s which was in
establishing the NSF. The conference was important for the Japanese sports situation that was to
promote development of the local chapter of the NPTA.
3) It could be said, the NPTA promoted joining non-NPTA into the NPTA because, the NPTA in-
cluded the sports of non-NPTA to the NSF. In addition, the NPTA developed and strengthened the
local chapters of the NPTA through holding the preliminary games of the NSF.
4) The NPTA promoted to organize sports organizations of adults through adults participated in
the NSF and the preliminary games.
The NPTA was going to reconstruct the Japanese sports situation because, their systems of or-
ganization and administration were weakened after the W.W. E.The background of the reconstruct
was included, expectation of the Ministry of Education that they planed the NPTA concern all
sports organizations and the NPTA lead a normal development of Japan sports. It could be said, the
NPTA planned to stabilize systems of organization and administration through cooperating with
the Ministry of Education. After all, the establishing of the NSF was included the expectation of the
rebuilding of the Japanese sport situation.
An fang des 20. Jahrhunderts entstand in Europa die sogenannte Gymnastikbewegung, in der man
statt des foermlichen Spiess-Maul Systems und der formalisierten schwedischen Gymnastik eine neue
Gymnastik suchte. In dieser Bewegung wird es angestrebt, die Gymnastik mit Seele und Leben zu
erfuellen. Auch in Japan wurden schon in den 30er Jahren in einigen Buechern die vielfaeltigen Taetig-
keiten der gymnastischen Schulen vorgestellt. Aber in diesen Buechern gab es nur wenige Beschrei-
bungen der stattgefundenen Zusammenarbeit zwischen diesen Schulen und mit Fachleuten anderer
Bereiche. Zum Beispiel gab es nur unbefriedigende Beschreibungen ueber die Beziehung zwischen ei-
nem Gruender dieser Bewegung, R.Bode (1881-1970) und dem Gruender der Ausdruckslehre, L.Klages
Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss L.Klages' auf R.Bodes "Ausdrucksgymnastik" zu klaeren. Dabei
sollen R.Bode "Ausdrucksgymnastik" 2. Aufl. und L.Klages "Grundlegung der Wissenschaft vom
Ausdruck" 7.ueberarbeitete Aufl. usw. beruecksichtigt werden.
R.Bode hatte bei L.Klages den Unterschied zwischen Ausdrucksbewegungen und Willkuerbewegung-
en, erstere kommen aus der Seele, letztere aus dem Willen, gelernt. Dadurch erkannte R.Bode dass
das Spiess-Maul System und die schwedische Gymnastik Willkuerbewegungen sind, die zu stark vom
Geist beherrscht werden. Die Rhythmuslehre und die Ausdruckslehre L.Klages' hatten R.Bode stark
beeinflusst. R.Bode versuchte nun die herkoemmliche Gymnastik mit den Ausdrucksbewegungen see-
lischen Ursprungs zu erfuellen. Daraus entwickelte er die Entspannungsuebungen und die Schwung-
uebungen. So erreichte er eine natuerliche, lebendige und rhythmische Bewegungsschulung und schuf
das System von der Ausdrucksgymnastik.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical developing process from the mid 1870s when
baseball came in, to 2008, about the movement of the overhand pitch that is one of techniques of the
pitcher in baseball. The result of this study can be outlined as follows.
When baseball came to Japan in the beginning of the 1870s, the pitcher must pitch the ball in an
easy underhand motion. In 1895, American rules were translated into Japanese for the first time the
history of overhand pitching started at this time. However, there was no pitcher's mound, therefore,
the pitcher must generate the power of the ball by himself. As a result, torso movement that inclined
toward second base, and, inclined toward home base developed.
In 1905, a new rule was introduced to Japan. This rule provided for the height of pitcher's mound
to a maximum height of 15 inches. This change made the pitcher more able to throw down from a
high position. As a result, the movement that inclined toward home base was emphasized. One more
reason of this emphasis was the location of the strike zone. It was identified between a batter's knees
and his shoulders on the basis of a vertical posture, therefore, a speedball up to the height of the
shoulder was a good ball. To throw that kind of ball, movement like that was required.
At the end of the 1920s, the twisting of the waist during an arm swing was generalized. In
addition, combination of the torso movement and limbs was utilized. There was gradually an
increase of the attention to ball control behind this development.
From a rule of 1941, the pitcher was permitted to step back behind the pitcher's plate, before
stepping to home base. As a result, the pitcher came to be able to make more of a driving force to
the home base direction by rising up his leg up extremely high. In order to generate this power, a
follow up movement developed; the twisting torso to the second base direction and s twist back to
the home base direction.
In 1956, the strike zone was reduced to between the batter's knee and his "arm pits", on the basis
of the "batting posture". As a result, the effect of the speedball in relation to the height of the
shoulder came to be called "ball" which means not a strike. And throwing to the lowest height came
to be the most important factor, therefore, the movement of the inclining torso which was seen since
the beginning, came to be ineffective. And pitching in an inclined movement changed to a vertical
movement of the torso. Because of this change, the subject of the pitcher changed from aiming to
create big power pitches into stabilizing the control of the pitch.
In 1988, the height of the pitcher's mound was reduced from a height of 15 inches to 10 inches.
Next year, the upper limit of the strike zone was dropped from "armpit" to "horizontal line at the
midpoint between the top of the shoulder and the top of the uniform pants". In 1997, the lower
limit of strike zone was dropped to beneath the kneecap. For those reasons, the pitcher began to
put emphasis on control, especially, throwing the lowest ball became the most important subject,
more so than before. To throw a lower ball, stability of movement was taken into consideration as
well. This resulted in the twisting to the second base direction that had been seen since about the
1940s to become ineffective for the first time. And then, the movement of the arms and legs, such
as a forward step with a twisting inward motion, a backswing whilst lifting an elbow, a forward
swing with a torsion movement and the return of it, developed. As a summary, the vertical torso
movement and the twisting direction to home base is the conventional movement technique of
modern day overhand pitching of baseball.