It can no longer be believed that the Greeks were unique in their agonal spirit. Many scholars argue that competition is typical of ancient societies. The purpose of this paper is to examine sport in the Mycenaean civilization. However, it is necessary to clarify whether the Minoans influenced the Mycenaean sports.
The Minoans mainly practiced bull leaping and boxing. Bull leaping in particular was the most popular sport among the Minoans. The noble participants had to leap over bulls. Though it is supposed that the bull leaping is, like boxing, a kind of competitive sport, there is no certain evidence. On the other hand, the boxers weared a metal helmet protecting the head and face. The purpose of this dangerous boxing is uncertain. We cannot clearly decide whether the boxing and bull leaping are initiation ritual, or secular activity. Some scholars believe that the Minoan sport influenced the Myceaean and Greek sports. The Mycenaeans adopted only the bull sport. The helmeted boxers and bull leaping are unknown in Greek art.
Many archaeological evidences confirm the existence of horse-drawn chariots in the ancient Near East, but they were used in war and hunting. Although F. Starke’s new interpretation of the Kikkuli Text was accepted by a few scholars, he wrongly interpreted the Text. Hittites did not enjoy chariot racing. It seems to be possibility that chariot racing was performed by the Myceaeans. However, a few archeological evidences only suggest the sport. The issues of prizes remain unsolved. It is not clear whether the Mycenaean chariot racing influenced Homer.
It is clear that sports were part of the funeral ceremony held in honor of the dead. It seems to be reasonable to suppose that the Mycenaeans had funeral games with armed combat, bull leaping and possibly chariot racing. However, some scholars argue that boxing and bull leaping are not funeral game, but initiation ritual in the Aegean civilization. It is the present conditions that opinions about sports in the Mycenaean civilization are argued variously because there is no certain evidence.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of labor negotiation by Japan Professional Baseball Players Association in order to capture the change of the status of the players, who are the important persons concerned in the professional baseball world. This article focuses the period from 1985, when the Japan Professional Baseball Players Association （JPBPA） was established to 1993, when a free agent （FA） system was introduced.
Recognized as a labor union by the Labor Relations Commission, the JPBPA obtained their legal right that they could negotiate with the Nippon Professional Baseball organization （NPB）. As a result, the JPBPA succeeded in the improvement of the working conditions as they had wished since its foundation.
In addition, JPBPA managed to reach the introduction of the FA system, which permits the freedom of the transfer of the player. However, due to the interest of each baseball clubs the players as combatant could not involve in decision making directly. As a result, the introduced FA system was different from the system that the JPBPA required in 1991, and limited players could exercise the right. However, the introduction of the FA system could be regarded as an epoch－making, in that it enables the players to negotiate with the baseball clubs equally viewpoint with the NPB by the freedom of the transfer of players being permitted.
Furthermore, we should pay attention to having gained such rights by the JPBPA under the condition
which the NPB seems to lead the process of the negotiation.
Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts entstand in Europa die sogenannte Gymnastikbewegung, in der man
statt des formlichen Spieß-Maul Systems und der formalisierten schwedischen Gymnastik eine neue
Gymnastik suchte. In dieser Bewegung fanden drei wichtige Tagungen, an denen Vertreter aller
neuen Gymnastikschulen teilnahmen,statt. Es waren die Tagung fur kunstlerische Korperschulung
1922 in Berlin, die Tagung zum Thema “Gymnastische Korperbildung” 1926 in Dusseldorf und die
Tagung zum Thema “Gymnastik als Menschenbildung” 1931 in Munchen. Diese Tagungen schufen
einen starken Zusammenhalt zwischen diesen neuen Gymnastikschulen. Im Jahr 1935 wurde das
Standardwerk die “Deutsche Gymnastik”, die zur Richtlinie der neuen Gymnastik wurde,publiziert.
In der “Deutschen Gymnastik” wurde das Arbeitsgebiet der neuen Gymnastik, das aus funf Teilgebiete
bestand, aufgezeigt. Das wurde von der Gymnastik H.Medaus ubernommen und hat bis
zum heutigen Tag bestand. Aber uber die Bewegungsgestaltung im Arbeitsgebiet wurde nur wenig
beshrieben und es war sehr schwierig zu verstehen.
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, den Sinn der Bewegungsgestaltung in der Gymnastik zu
klaren. Dabei soll O.F.Bollnow, Gestaltung als Aufgabe, berucksichtigt werden. Der Aufsatz steht
im Bericht “IV. Kongress fur Leibeserziehung 4.-7.Oktober 1967 in Stuttgart” zum Thema “Die Gestaltung”.
In der neuen Gymnastik wird die Bewegungsschulung oder die Bewegungsbildung durch das
Arbeitsgebiet, das aus “Grundschulung der Bewegung”, “Haltungsschulung” und “Bewegungsentwicklung”
usw. besteht, verwirklicht. Eines der letzten Teilgebiete, die entstanden sind, ist die Bewegungsgestaltung.
O.F.Bollnow schrieb daß Gestaltung nichts tierisches sondern etwas menschliches
war. Aber Gestaltung zugleich nicht durch Absicht und Wille, also den Geist beherrscht wurde
und keinen Zweck außer der Gestaltung selbst hatte. Das Ziel in der Bewegungsgestaltung ist der
gestalthafte organisch-ganzheitliche Fluß der Bewegung. Man will diesen immer mehr vervollkommnen.
So ist die Bewegungsgestaltung als reines Kern am Ende der Bewegungsschulung in der Gymnastik.
Das wird im Zusammenspiel oder in der Vorfu ¨hrung auf Festen der Gymnastik vollendet. Das
verdeutlicht uns, daß Gymnastikveranstaltungen wie die Gymnaestrada, die weltweit stattfindet,
sehr wichtige Gelegenheiten nicht nur fur die Leistungsvorfuhrung sondern fur die Vollendung der
According to previous studies, acquiring“ technique” came to be related to forming character after 1936. This study considers how Kenji Shinozaki thought about acquiring “technique” to contribute to forming character to clarify the factor that acquiring“ technique” took root in physical education. The historical materials used in this study are journal articles of Kenji Shinozaki published after 1936.
The results of this study are summarized as follows:
1） Based on the theory of Sukeichi Shinohara and consideration about development of “technique”, Shinozaki thought “technique” as the expression of the spirit and character. And he thought forming character as unify the spirit with body by the acquiring“ technique”.
2） Shinozaki thought that it was necessary to make traditional training of Japan an ideal for forming character by acquiring “technique”. Concretely, he thought that following two were indispensable. First, it is to rouse longing of students for exercise. Second, it is“ spiritual movement” which consists of “willing movement （effort for the realization of longing）” and “restrained movement （restraint of the harmful desire）”.
3） In order to rouse longing, Shinozaki thought it was effective in free gymnastics to compare the “technique” by aiming for the skillful student or observing each other. On the other hand, in gymnastics, he thought it was effective to aim for acquiring “technique” first, and raising the workmanship next. In addition, he thought it was indispensable to aim for acquiring “technique” which matches each student’s skill.
4） As regards “spiritual movement”, it was emphasized in gymnastics that the students made an effort for a long term to acquire “technique”. This is a concrete example of “willing movement”. However, Shinozaki didn’t mention“ restrained movement”.
As described above, it is considered acquiring “technique” to contribute to forming character was incomplete. However, the view that acquiring “technique” has the usefulness that rouses longing for exercise of students kept existing from the 1920’s. Therefore, it is considered that usefulness to rouse interest and longing for exercise became the factor of acquiring“ technique” in physical education class after 1936.
The Ookunitama Shrine in Fuchu City, Tokyo, is a shrine that enshrines Ookunitama no ōkami who is the mikogami, the son of Susanoo. The Ookunitama Shrine used to be a shrine in Kokufu（ the capital of the historical Provinces of Japan） that was referred to as Rokusho-no-miya Shrine and Musashi-no-Soja. The Hassaku Sumo Festival is a festival held in the Ookunitama Shrine.
The sumo arena in the precincts of the Ookunitama Shrine has a monument built in August 1, 1990. The epigraph says,“ The Ookunitama Shrine Hassaku Sumo is a venerable sumo festival whose Mizuhikimaku curtain was dedicated by the Shogunate for the purpose of encouraging physical activities and which originally started as dedicatory sumo matches to pray for the peace reigns over the land and the huge harvest （of the five grains） in commemoration of the fact that Tokugawa Ieyasu-ko （Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa） made an entry into the Edo Castle in August 1, 1590”.However, currently there is no evidence for the “dedicated Mizuhikimaku curtain” or a document which provides an evidence for the“ purpose of encouraging physical activities by the Shogunate”.
Most of the festivals in Japan with the word “Hassaku” are those which have their origin in August 1（ August is“ Hachigatsu” in Japanese, while 1 is“ Sakujitsu” in ancient Japanese） that has the significance related to agriculture such as wish for a good harvest and disaster prevention, or those which were started by the feudal lord who gave a special meaning to“ Hassaku.” The Hassaku Sumo Festival was quite a rare case in that it was said to originate from the commemoration of the triumphal entry into the Edo Castle by Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa.
This study suggests that Ookunitama Shrine and the Tokugawa Shogunate continued their close relationship, based on the historical examination of sacred treasures kept in the Treasure Hall of Ookunitama Shrine as well as the history and literature on Ookunitama Shrine.
And it presents a possibility that these close relationships may have influenced the Hassaku Sumo Festival.
These close relationships can be said to have had sufficient influence on Hassaku Sumo Festival at Ookunitama Shrine to be regarded as originating from the commemoration of the triumphal entry into the Edo Castle by Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa.
The purpose of this study is to clarify a modern sports ideology expressed in newspaper articles by focusing on their use of the term “Athlete”, which steadily increased in the Japanese media since around 1990.
Firstly, it tried to explain why the term “Athlete” became a frequently used term by the media.
The study considered it to the fact that the term was used by the UNESCO in the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport in characteristic ways, especially, in its Article 7 supplemented in 1991.
Based on it, Japanese newspaper articles （Asahi and Yomiuri） in the 1990’s were analyzed. The findings indicate an emergence of new sports ideology, such as “Equality of pro-competition and non-competition”,“ Equality in the competition of healthy people and people with disabilities”“， Selfmanagement of the body”,“ Expansion and improvement of sports rights” and“ Sports as a selfexpression” in the Japanese media.
The use of the term “Athlete” symbolizes the change in the recognition and category of modern
sports, and opened a new discursive space. It also suggests a new perspective of sports, and international
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