This paper discusses the excludability and rivalry of data and their usage, as well as, the origin and processing of data and the relationship between open science and peer review. Data are not rivalrous, once distinguished from their usage. Utilization of data whose usage is self-evident can be hardly restricted physically but legally.
The big earthquake occurred in April, 2015 caused tremendous damage to the life of people in Nepal. Almost two years has passed, however, the disaster recovery activities including the rehabilitation of infrastructures and the reconstruction of buildings have been delayed. The major factors of these delays are 1) the political turmoil in recent years, 2) the difficulties of the physical distribution between Nepal and India caused by the ethnic problems, and 3) the constraints of the procurement of materials for the reconstruction caused by the weakness of manufacturing industries.
In coastal areas with the fisheries industry as the core industry, the Great East Japan Earthquake seriously damaged stationary nets of salmon, scallops, oysters, seaweeds and the like. In particular, the profitability of stationary-net fishery on the coast was exacerbated by the sharp decline of salmon landing. Therefore, I will clarify the current situation and problems of Iwate Prefecture, where advanced technology is to be introduced, on salmon-release projects, to show future directions. The main result is that the salmon's regression rate deduced from the past data tended to be close to the regression rate in the 1970s. Therefore, restructuring of discharge projects by introducing advanced technology is expected to improve the regression rate. Next, I summarize the current status of fixed nets (fishery) by saying that salmon became the mainstay in the income structure, and it became clear that it was required to raise the regression rate by introducing advanced technology to discharge projects.